HOW TO CHASE STORMS – For Photography & Spotting

HOW TO CHASE STORMS – For Photography & Spotting


Hank’s storm footage currently airs worldwide in productions from BBC Earth, National Geographic, The Weather Channel and many more You can also see Hank’s lightning captures in Motion pictures “The Last Witch Hunter” and Netflix original “TAU.” The Pecos Hank YouTube channel features educational and cinematic delivery of severe weather as well as frequent encounters with with wild animals and interesting people he meets. while living on the road day to day. He is going to talk about anticipating storm development & transitions for optimal viewing and I think this is going to be some optimal viewing for us. Come on up. Guys thank you so much for having me out here. The welcome has been so warm which is nice considering how cold it is. The commute, I gotta tell you, it wasn’t the smoothest. I flew up from Houston last night And I’m sitting on the plane and next to me there’s a woman and her four year old girl It was the first time she’d ever been on an airplane. And so she kind of had this look of… I’m kinda nervous and I’m excited And we were trying to say this is going to be safe and fun. and the little girl looks out the window and she says… “Wing!” And I said “Yeah, that’s a wing.” And the plane started to back up and she goes… “We’re Flying!” And her Mom goes “We’re not flying yet” And the plane started to move forward and she goes “We’re flying!” Mom said “No, we’re not flying yet” And then the plane gets o the runway and takes off and she sinks back in her seat. Her eyes are the size of small goldfish bowls And here face was teetering o the edge of astonishment and panic. Kind of like that child that’s running… And it falls and hits the ground and you don’t know if it’s gonna laugh or cry. And so you immediately go into preventative maintenance. So we’re taking off and I said “Look at all there sparkly lights!” and she starts to get a smile on one end of her face. And then her mom goes. “Look at the pretty clouds!” It’s working. She’s starting to feel good… And she’s smiling and I’m looking at this child looking out the window seeing the miracle of flight for the first time. And then her smile starts to go away. She reaches up for her head And I thing, Oh no! The change in pressure is starting to effect her. And so I go, “Can you yawn?” And she goes “What?” And I go “can you yawn?” and she goes “What?” And I go, “Go like this.” and she started SCREAMING AND CRYING and backed away from me. Her mom looked at me like, What are you doing? And then it was awkward for a couple hours after that. It doesn’t get any better… So I get to the hotel. It’s about 1AM. And I’m walking into the hotel. And I meet the really nice desk clerk at the beautiful Inn at Waters Edge. He says. “Here’s your clicker. Use this to get in the elevator. It won’t work unless you use the clicker. I said OK. He said use the same clicker to get in your room. I said OK and then walked into the elevator. I hit the button. It starts going up and I’m standing there. We get to level three and the door doesn’t open. I’m thinking Okay… SoIi hit number 3 again. I can kind of hear this whirring. I’m deaf in my right ear so I can hear sounds but I can’t place sounds. I kinda hear this whirring noise. It stops and I’m thinking okay great. I’m stuck in the elevator. So I hit the door open button. And it makes a noise. I’m thinking what do I do? So I start pulling on the door and that didn’t work at all. And I see the emergency ring button and I though… Let me go down and I’ll let them know it’s not working maybe So I hit level 1 and as I’m getting out a woman is walking in. And I said excuse me I done think the elevator is working. and she goes… Really what’s wrong? I said the door’s not opening. and she said “I just took it. It’s fine.” I said Okay. (huh, we’ll see about that!) So I go back up with her. I’m sitting there waiting. I hit 3. I made sure I used my clip. We get to the third level and the door doesn’t open. And so I turned around like “uh huh!” And I look and she’s walking out the door that’s opening behind me. I didn’t know what to say so I just said “I’ll be speaking at the weather seminar tomorrow.” I wanted to talk to you guys about anticipating storm development & transitions for optimal viewing. I’ve been chasing for over 2 decades Over the years I’ve seen some patterns and I’ve learned a few things. And I wanted to share them with you guys. And uh… Some of it might even be accurate. I’m going to take you guys on a hypothetical storm chase. It’s not one of those chases where there’s tomatoes the whole time. Theres going to be a lot of transitioning and a lot of development that we’re going to anticipate. I’ve got a mosaic of radar grabs and different storms This talk is geared more towards photographers and chasers But I think there’s going to be a lot here for spotters as well. A little bit for everybody. Maybe not for little 4 year old girls. If you’ll notice the SPC says “Perhaps supercells initially but with a rapid upscale growth into cell clusters or an MCS So what that means for us burrito aficionados is We want to get on these cells early right? For most of us, it’s probably tomatoes that got us out of bed at 2am. Made us leave our families. Driving all night long drinking truck stop what-not. Some of us lied to our bosses. Some of you bailed on your mom on Mother’s day. So it’s probably tornadoes that are getting us out. We want to see those and monitor those. So we want to get on these cells really easy and really fast. Before the cluster or get messy or become more of a linear mode. And so they’re off. We’ve got discrete cells. Remember how I said we want to be on them, but we’re way back here because We were craving a grand slam. we wanted a hot meal. We’re tired of bananas and gas station sandwiches. So this is where we’d really like to be We’ve got a well developed supercell. A hooking appendage. It’s already severe warned. They surprised us a little early, however this might work in our favor. We’ve got another cell that’s developing down here. It’s heading in our general direction and we can head it off at the pass So this might actually work in our favor. Let’s go see what that cell looks like hypothetically. So here we are underneath the base It’s still got kind of a bow-ish look to it… A heavy downdraft behind it But it’s developing nicely. We’ve got a mean storm so that’s a good thing. Let’s sit and watch it and see where it goes from here. Now we’ve got a pretty good wall cloud right? We’ve got a tail cloud here. The rain-cooled air is condensing sooner. It’s streaming up here. So we know there’s a motion of wind going up through here. We kind of see some spokes here maybe suggesting some inflow coming in up here. And right here the end of that wall cloud has a rounded edge. And up here we can see the towing cumulus towers At our back the inflow is just gushing into the storm We put all this together and we can pretty much calculate this thing is rotating. And here’s our next slide. The same storm maybe 5 or 10 minutes later. And something has happened to it that if we’re hoping to see a tornado we don’t really like. Notice the wall cloud has been kind of blasted in half. It’s no longer got that rounded nub up here. It’s almost starting to look like curtains in your house are blowing outward. This storm is being undercut by cold outflow. Our storm, I think we can anticipate it’s becoming outflow dominant. We all know an outflow dominant storm is less likely to produce a potato. We’ve got kind of a shelf cloud forming here, but notice underneath right here we do have a spin-up. This particular scenario is burrito warned right now We’ve got this rotation here and we’ve all invested a lot into seeing tomatoes We tweeted our forecasts coincidentally 45 minutes after the SPC gave their outlook. So we really want that to be a tornado so that we have something to write home But we know that is a gustnado. Even though it’s underneath the storm still. It’s an easy pick when its pushed out in front of the storm and somebody might argue They’re saying “No, i saw circulation directly above this.” You guys have seen these storms. There’s turbulence everywhere. It’s going to be really hard to not find some kind of rotation above. But in their defense. You can see how it can be an easy mistake. That dust, debris cloud has a very similar appearance. But obviously we’ve got a funnel cloud above that. That’s obviously a potato. What about this one? This is actually a tornado. There’s clear rotation co-located directly above that. So gustnadoes and tornadoes can be a little tricky to decipher. We look back at our storm now and it’s clearly an outflow dominant storm. At this point we’ve got a lot of options. Let’s look at some of those options of what we might want to do in order to, or anticipate with this storm. A lot of people go home at this point they say “Eh, I’m done.” So we’re right here. One of our options is to back up. A lot of times when you have these lines forming you back up, roll the time lapse and get these beautiful structures Of storms approaching. And it might look something like that. Notice we can see the lightning. We got a shelf cloud forming here. Or it might look something like that. I’m going to come to this monitor and give this monitor some attention. So that’s one of our options. But a lot of us have seen that so we might want to do something different. So let’s go back to our radar. Ok, we could let the storm overrun us and that could be really neat. You get up in that and its really eerie. So that’s another thing we can anticipate to see when that shelf cloud overtakes you… Is to see the “whales mouth.” Now notice that we’ve got several tornado warnings on this mosaic that I put together here. We could come up here to this QLCS or this tornado warning right there. But generally as you guys know the odds of seeing that tornado are really slim. There’s probably going to be a slim window of there even being a tornado. And that can be a wild goose chase. However if we were there, It might look something like that. They’re generally not these beautiful amazing burritos. They tend to be weaker, but not always. Another option. We could come up here. It looks like we’ve got a supercell embedded along this line. That can happen in kinks sometimes. Other times it was perhaps that other supercell that we initially wanted to be on and as the line came, the supercell was so powerful that it was able to retain its identity. So we could go up there and see that. I generally don’t mess with those unless there’s nothing else. It might look something like that. They generally for me in my cases they tend to be more high precipitation The odds of seeing a tornado in that are really slim. And it can be really dangerous as well. Maybe we’d get lucky and see something like that. Obviously I think we all know what we should do. We want to go down here to Tail-End-Charlie, the tail end of the line. That’s probably going to be a better place to see Just have more visibility and it’s the more likely place i think to see a photogenic tornado. And if we were right there looking at the storm, it might look something like that. You can see it’s multicellular. There’s a couple cells. The second cell actually has a pretty good wall cloud directly underneath the updraft here So let’s drive up close to that and lets keep a better eye on that. Now we’re underneath the base and it’s looking a bit meaner than the first cell we were on. It’s a little more rounded. It’s not so bow-ish looking. It feels meaner. It looks meaner. It’s starting to look more like a mesocyclone. I like the words “supercell structures.” They’re kind of hybrids between not a supercell and a supercell. We’re going to watch this one and see what happens. One thing we’ve all noticed is sometimes you see this uptick in cloud-to-ground lightning frequency. Generally we associate that with storm strengthening. Sometimes, about once a year I’ll run into one of these storms and the cloud-to-ground lightning activity is so intense. Every two to three seconds BAM! Thousand-one, thousand-two BAM! Thousand-one, thousand-two BAM! I’m probably exaggerating a little bit It’s really amazing to see this. You can feel the energy in the atmosphere. So sometimes with this frequent cloud-to-ground lightning activity we can anticipate generally storm strengthening. At least I do. Here’s another cloud-to-ground lightning strike Now the base is kind of getting over us. On this day the cells are moving really slow. We feel kind of confident we can be underneath the base a little bit. It’s still not looking that tornado-ish yet. But notice the two little trees right here… That’s foreshadowing. Here’s another strike. Here’s our two little trees here. This storm was really amazing. It took me a lot of discipline to not use the word “insane” just now. Just in my field of view, I got multiple CGs crashing right in front of me. I’m not even getting the ones that are here or behind me. And then here’s our next shot. POW! Nails the tree. And this is probably not the brightest thing… to do! You can see we’re kind of elevated. Lightning is striking and getting closer and closer. This strike caught the tree on fire. And then right after that, Boom! Another one. I thought it hit the tree again but it was actually about 20-30 yards behind the tree. Behind that tree there’s some kind of structure. A metal phone booth… With an antenna and gears I call it the port-o-potty from space. But it nailed that. Ok at this point it’s time to do like they do on Holy Grail and runaway! Runaway! Ok, Skip has some really compelling theories about tornadogenesis and I have some too I want to share with you guys. Like his, it’s widely debated. But I have found out, and have multiple occasions to back this up… That if you look at a storm and you say “Eh, you’re kind of wimpy” And if you turn your back on it, it makes a tornado. I’m just going to throw that out there. I heard somebody say it’s true. Who said that? Yep! Alright, our storm is mean now. We got a mesocyclone. We got a fat tail cloud. We got a funnel cloud there. It’s probably a tornado. But notice our storm is starting to fill up with rain. And we get kind of an ugly tornado that’s rain-wrapped. This burrito was very transient. And then our storm… lets say it goes outflow dominant. A lot of times when you go on these storm chases, it’s not drive to one cell, and you follow that cell like Skip got to do on his last chase. That generally doesn’t happen. There’s a lot of transitions. You go to your first cell early in the day. that cell isn’t in quite the right environment. So you run over here and get on that cell and it doesn’t quite do the right thing. So the typical storm chase, storm chasers are bouncing around a lot waiting for their right cell. On thing I want to point out, another amazing phenomenon that you can see… We’re going to call this a typical negative cloud-to-ground lightning strike. We’re calling it that because it had several flickers. it was a DUDUDUDU! Now watch this next lightning strike. It’s got a different look to it right? It’s got this smooth channel. There’s no branching on it. And generally we call these positive lightning strikes. Positive lightning sticks really do well with video. Even if you have a camera with a rolling shutter. They nail the ground. the pulse is long. Just one good BANG! It really registers well. So these are really neat, these smooth channel positive lightning strikes. Here’s another one here. Same storm. Here’s another one here. They have this crazy bending. Who here has seen these before? A guy Sam here gave me his calendar earlier. Man, you have a great one by the way. In that calendar you have one of these and what I like about your picture Sometimes we call these branchless lightning, but i assure you there’s branches it’s just aloft. In your picture, the clouds open up aloft and your seeing the recoil leaders up above And then below the base in the boundary layer you’re seeing the smooth channel. So it’s a really great picture. I wish I had it to show these guys. Ok here are some more of them. This is a stacked image. But look how straight that lightning channel is. So that’s something I think is really neat and I wanted to share with you guys. Ok we’re looking back at our storm. It’s clearly outflow dominant again. It’s starting to get a shelf-ie cloud look to it. It’s still gnarly under here. But again our storm went outflow dominant. So I think it’s time to go back to the radar and asses the situation. So if you look here there’s no more burrito warnings. And that doesn’t look like a supercell at the tail end of that, however… Something has happened. When you see these lines like this. This happens many times. That’s part of the initial wave but a lot of storm chasers are biding our time. We’re waiting for a cell to fire up prefrontal line in that warm sector. When that happens on some of these volatile days, We’re like… Alright, it’s business time. Right there. We’ve got a cell. If we turned around it might look something like this. It’s already got a good velocity couplet. The cell on this day is moving really slow. We’re up here but we’re confident we can go in front of this cell. We’ve got plenty of time. We’ve calculated it. So we’re going to anticipate this storm moving right up here right where the NWS says it’s going to. And we’re going to drive right in front of it And it might look something like that. So we’ve got our base here. We can see the anvil cloud. It’s blossoming over us. At this point all we gotta do is let it come to us. But let’s drive south a little more and maybe we have something like that. So we’ve got an LP supercell forming. We’ve got a clear mesocyclone and we’re standing there. Warm air is blasting at our back. Our tripod sometimes flies off and we look really silly. But guys, I’ve got to do the disclaimer. I gotta say it. I don’t know the politically correct words to emphasize safety and then show you what I do. It’s a contradiction. So I’m going to go with my disclaimer and that’s, I’m a professional guys. Please don’t try this at home… Because you’re probably going to have to wait a long, long time. You gotta drive to Oklahoma. (crickets) For those of you that are watching at home… Nobody laughed at that last joke. And there is is. There’s the classic shot that we love. The supercell structure. We’ve got the tail cloud. We’ve got the tornado. Oh man, I want to get a little closer and get a good shot of that. I definitely think that is too close. We should probably turn around. Oops You didn’t see that one slide. Ok so now our storm has a long track (tornado). It’s been on the ground 30 minutes. More and more rain is starting to fill up that updraft. It’s getting more and more dangerous by the second. This particular one was on the ground 90 minutes. EF4… The longer it’s on the ground the more it tends to get rainier and rainier. And then the bear’s cage turns into a bomb. It’s high precipitation. There’s still a burrito on the ground in there. We’re probably not going to mess with that. It’s getting dark. And then our storm… Let’s say, again it goes outflow dominant. There might be a surging cold front that finally caught up. But whatever reason, the whole storm is becoming a line again with really pretty structure. and now it’s time to go back to the drawing board. What do we want to do here? This is a time that I really love. Lets say the tomato threat has been mitigated. Maybe we wan to shoot into some of that orange and get some lightning strikes with the orange. That’s always nice. But I want to be on the other side of this storm right here. Here’s why. So we look at our GOES image… and out here to the west there’s nothing. Nothing but sunlight. Once that sunlight gets underneath that anvil, magic is about to happen. Another cool thing is we might have some above anvil cirrus plumes right here.. If you haven’t heard about above anvil cirrus plumes yet, you will. Ok we’re driving. We turn around and look back. the sunlight is getting underneath it. So we’re getting this really pretty red turbulence. We’re not worried about potatoes. Pretty spectacular sight if you’ve never seen that. Now we’re on the other side. There’s no more rain. And this is kind of what we wanted to see right here. This is what we anticipated. Was… that. We’ve got the sunlight… That beautiful magic hour look and we’ve got this short window where sunlight got below the anvil. Before it goes down we’re going to get those bright reds And pretty lightning. Let’s turn our heads. What’s to the right? Awesome! Rainbow and lightning. The red goes away. Another thing we want to see. What’s to the north of us? That’s what we wanted to see. Who doesn’t love looking at mammatus clouds? It’s getting darker and darker now. More and more lightning activity is becoming visible. This storm is highly electric! Now it’s completely dark. There’s so much lightning activity we can really make out the cloud features. Again what’s so special about being on the back side of this is there’s no danger to me as long as I’m far enough away from the CGs. You can just sit there and GAWK at these beautiful lightning displays, colors and cloud shapes. Ok, that’s probably where we are. the line is still growing and zippering down like this. But there’s something developing right now that if you’re a lightning lover and you see that radar image, you’re like, “That’s where I want to be.” In the trailing stratiform region behind this bowing segment there’s a lot of lightning activity. That’s where we want to be because that is where some of the most erratic, crazy lightning discharges tend to occur. We’re going to start driving up into that. The first thing we start to see is anvil crawler lightning. Everybody here has seen anvil crawler lightning right? This is upward-moving lightning. Upward-moving lightning tend to initiate from tall objects. So you get into that trailing stratiform region, you find a radio tower and you wait. and eventually you’ll see lightning shoot up out of that tower. When it hit the base of the cloud there tends to be a screening layer there… A charged screening layer. And thank goodness for that because it hits that and blossoms out in all directions. And then… I’ve heard of three, but six? Now I’ll walk you through what’s happening. You’ve got this lightning strike. This one comes down. It hits the ground. When it hits the ground there’s an abrupt change in the electric field and actually triggers all these. This hits the ground and then boom! Six of these leap up into the sky. And then… Bam. That happened. I’m tearing up looking at it. One of my all-time favorite moments. I had never even heard of this before. 14 upward propagating positive leaders leaping up. What the heck is going on? Look closely you’ll see wind turbines. So wow! What an amazing storm chase we’ve had together. We’ve seen some amazing things. But we’re not done yet. It’s 2am. There’s one thing we haven’t seen. I think what we’re going to do now is drive away. We’re going to back away and here’s the storm. We’ve got the anvil cloud right here. And we see a red sprite. Discharges that are shooting out of thunderstorms 50 lies into the mesosphere. If you love nature and if you love thunderstorms I highly recommend that you guys go out and have a look at these mesoscale convective systems. They’ve brought me a lot of joy and I know you guys share the same enthusiasm and I know you’re going to see some amazing things. So thank you so much everybody!

Can You See Me?

Can You See Me?


Vsauce, I’m Jake and you can’t see me
right now even though I am directly in front you. Since there is no light in the room there
is nothing in the visible spectrum for you to see, but that doesn’t mean that there
is nothing here. Let me show you… Using a FLIR Thermal Imaging camera we get
a visual representation of thermal radiation, or infrared radiation, the heat transfer by
the release of photons. Thermal cameras report a temperature value,
the effect of temperature. Instead of seeing the visible light of an
object, it estimates the infrared radiation an object is emitting. And you can tell that my nose is colder than
the rest of my body and you can see everything around me, because everything above 0 kelvin,
a temperature that we have never achieved or witnessed, glows. But generally we don’t see it since the
emitted photons are not in our visible range. Also it looks just like Predator vision from
the movie Predator which is what inspired me to borrow this camera in the first place. Let’s turn the lights on for a second. Ok, everything looks normal again. And I have a refreshing, cold beverage in
an aluminum can. You know it is cold because I just said it
was but if we switch back to thermal mode, you can see the extreme temperature disparity
between my body and the can. Also I just have poor hand circulation which
is why they are cold. It looks darker, and because it is reading
the intensity, the label on the can is completely missing. If I rub it on my face, the temperature change
is immediately noticeable, it’s almost like painting with temperature, whereas when I
rub it on my face without the camera…I just look like I have a thing for cans. Thermal cameras are incredibly fun so we are
going to do some experiments with it but before we do, let’s talk about what you are seeing,
or should I say, what you aren’t. The electromagnetic spectrum is the range
of all light that exists. Two of the fundamental properties of light
are frequency, the number of waves that pass by in a second, and then wavelength; the distance
from the peak of one wave to the next. T The less energetic the wave, the longer
the wavelength. The shorter the wavelength, the more energetic
the wave. The most energetic being: gamma rays, x-rays,
ultraviolet, and then our small spectrum of visible light, then things slow down and we
have infrared, microwave, and radiowave. When an object gets hot enough it starts to
bleed into the spectrum we see, moving from infrared to visible. You can see this with the hot door handle
in my video Could You Survive Home Alone. It becomes incandescent, it hits the Draper
Point, 977F, the temperature at which almost all solid materials glow. And the infrared spectrum isn’t the only
range technology has allowed us to witness. There are telescopes that can see gamma rays,
x-rays, ultraviolet wavelengths, microwave and radio waves. And when we see these images, we are seeing
false color, a representation of the invisible spectrum but it doesn’t show what the star,
nebula, or solar system would actually looks like to our naked eye since we are being shown
parts of the spectrum we’d never see. Take this image by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory
of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. This is a false color image. What is actually captured is this….3 images
in the soft, medium, and hard x-ray band. You can even download some raw x-ray files
from the Chandra website and create your own false color composites if you wanna give it
a go. I show how to do it in the latest DONG, do
online now guys, episode over on the DONG channel, link in the description. Back to Thermal cameras, there is a common
misconception that they allow us to see through objects. For example if we look at this wall we can
see the studs (HOT HOT HOT STUDS), the wooden beams, that are on the inside, when really
we are just seeing the difference in heat between the wall and the beams. We can get a glimpse at an object’s emissivity,
that is how well an object emits thermal radiation. A perfect emitter is Black Body, an object
which absorbs all light. It doesn’t reflect it or allow light to
pass through. And similarly to absolute zero, it is something
we have yet to witness or achieve. Let’s try something else… If I take a mylar blanket, and cover myself
with it, you can’t see me anymore because even though this is a thin plastic sheet,
it is heat reflective so I’m hidden. But if we take a normal plastic sheet like
this black square, like this plastic one here, you can start to see my heat radiate through
the object. Pretty neat! Now that is pretty cool- But ya know what’s
cooler than that? What’s cooler than that Ian? Trash. Garbage The gross stuff. So Ian this is just actual garbage. Or is it? Hey Vsauce, Michael here! The plastic this bag is made of is opaque
to visible light, you can’t see through it, but it is transparent to infrared light. The infrared radiation coming off my skin
passes right through it into the camera. Now that’s what I call garbageducational. Sort of a rubbage pun though. So as you can see you can’t really see through
Michael’s glasses…they look more like sunglasses. Pretty Interesting. Glass acts differently in thermal vision. Normally if I close this glass door…you
can still see me it’s transparent. But if we open the door and close it again
while looking through the thermal camera it becomes opaque, I’m no longer visible. And in fact you can see our wonderful cameraman
Eric Langlay on the other side. Glass is designed to pass visible wavelengths
and block thermal or infrared for insulation. Not only that, but just like the Mylar blanket,
you’re seeing the reflection of the glass as well as the window glazing. Quick side note: If you can’t see glass
through a thermal camera, then how can you see anything since traditionally lenses are
made from glass? Well, that’s because thermal lenses use
the element germanium instead of the traditional glass lens. So hiding behind a window would be a great
way to hide from something with thermal or infrared vision. But, the movie Predator tells us that there
is another way. So to recreate the scene in Predator where
Arnold Schwarzenegger covers himself in mud and makes himself invisible to the Predator’s
thermal vision we need a few things: three strapping young man, a bucket full of mud,
and Ian shirtless. I can do that. But before we begin there are two other things
we wanted to show you. A balloon, but when it is inflated you can
see through it. Hey. Isn’t that incredible. Look at that. And then another fun thing to do, if you wanna
“draw with heat”, grab any kind of surface, in this case the Curiosity Box, and as you
can see it is very colorful has images and stuff but in thermal vision there is nothing
there until. Oh yeah. That friction is making some heat, I can’t
see it though. But now you can! It says Inq who is the mascot for the Curiosity
Box. The Curiosity Box by Vsauce, the Best Of box
is shipping right now for new subscribers. It is filled with amazing stuff curated by
the Vsauce fellas and it is a great way to support your brain growth and also to support
Alzheimer’s research. Ok. Soooo uh…let’s get your clothes off. Ok, let’s do it. Do you really want me to get naked right here? Yup. Yeah, it’s cool. You just do you. Alright. Well don’t do you, do what we say. Should the glasses come off? Yeah take the glasses off. Maybe put your hair back a little bit. Whatever you do don’t warn me. Yeah know I hear when you’re painting a
wall you want to sandpaper it before it. Maybe we coulda done something like that to
me. Is it cold? Just a touch. Let’s get ya on the ground. Alright. Oh that’s great. The face we need to cover the face. Yeah, make sure you do the face. That is really satisfying slapping the mud
on. We’ll keep an air hole. Should we get a straw? Is this like a certified mudbath? A certified Vsauce mudbath? So it kind of worked! Everything covered in this mud mixture is
hiding his body temperature and you can see the parts that aren’t are still radiating. But it was pretty effective, but that could
also be because this is pretty cold right Ian? Yeah, it is fairly cold. This really isn’t very scientific I just
wanted to cover Ian in mud so we did it. So this was a fun experiment right guys? Yeah, real fun. Be sure to check out iDubbbzTV it is Ian’s
channel. He is a fantastic young, very young, talent. Thanks mate. And, as always, thanks for watching.

Are You In A Simulation?

Are You In A Simulation?


Vsauce, I’m Jake and we are living in a
simulation. Or at least that’s
what the simulation hypothesis proposes. That if a civilization, a posthuman civilization,
were to become significantly technologically advanced than we would most likely be a simulated. There are two worlds, two realities. The primary world which is where the simulation
is being run and the secondary world, the simulated universe we occupy which to us,
is the only one. And when creating this world, there are three
steps to successfully making the user believe it to be real: Immersion, Absorption, and
Saturation. Think about video games like Age of Empires,
Civilization, The Sims. They’re about recreating or mimicking reality..reliving
past events or creating new ones. And in 20 years we went from games looking
like this to this. As visuals advance, as the experiences become
more immersive and digital characters start reacting seemingly on their own, our understanding
of what is real and what isn’t starts to blur. Now characters in video games are bound by
a set of rules, a set of defining laws. A sim can’t walk through a solid wall, even
though it isn’t actually solid it is just lines of code that dictate what is or is not
solid but it is called a wall. Now think of our own world. This is a collection of atoms that together
form an object that we call a wall. It’s been atomically programmed to form
a specific shape. We are left with something that looks like,
that feels like a wall. We don’t see the microscopic pieces that
build it, just like we don’t see the code in a game. We just expect it to act a certain way because
of how our world is designed. We trust that it is made of something physical,
not just a programmed artificial boundary. When someone comes to your house, how do they
get there? Do you see them leave, do you see them on
their drive? They leave their home, time passes, and there
they are. It’s World Gestalt, a structure or configuration
of details which together implies the existence of a world, and causes the audience to fill
in the missing pieces of that world based on details given. If I walk off frame left you’d imagine I’d
come back around. But if I come back from somewhere unexpected,
your perception has been minutely fractured. It’s that World Gestalt, that assumption
of how things should be that allows a simulated reality to function. Not everything needs to be rendered, needs
to exist simultaneously for every user in the simulation. Maybe the reason the universe is expanding
and growing, is that it hasn’t finished loading yet. Think of VR. If you are looking in front of you, what is
behind you isn’t necessarily rendered, it hasn’t become real. It isn’t until you turn your head that it
comes into existence and what was just in front of you, is now gone. So the question becomes, how do you know anything
exists when you’re not looking at it? It’s the technological version of Solipsism. The idea that only your own mind is certain
to exist. Everything outside of this frame, the person
animating it, the office they are in, the entire world around them, including you, might
not exist outside of my own mind. So, let’s say we are in a simulation…why
would someone or something do it to this scale in the first place? One of the reasons to run a massive simulation
like this is proposed by philosophy professor Nick Bostrom in his paper “Are You Living
in a Computer Simulation?” He states that it could be an ancestor simulation. A civilization wanting to see what those before
them had done. Like a history book but one that is being
acted out instead of being read. Or we could just be characters in an incredibly
advanced video game. In our Simuverse we would be The Sims, and
in this universe we even get to play our own very rudimentary version of simulation games
on computers and consoles, thinking we are in control. And in video games, graphics improve, they
get better with our technology. But they don’t need to be perfect. With Virtual Reality, we know what we are
looking at isn’t real but to our senses to our mind it is and we react accordingly. So in this version we live in, it seems real
to us because this is all we have known, but to those that programmed this simuverse, reality
could be much different. It is Plato’s Allegory of the Cave. Plato suggests that you have prisoners chained
in a cave from birth, not able to look at each other or anywhere besides directly in
front them at a wall. All they see are shadows projected onto the
wall by a fire they’ve never seen behind them. This is all they have known so to them, the
shadows are reality and the voices they hear are from the shadows, as well. Since they have never experienced anything
else, never seen a real person, had a human interaction, they have no understanding of
the outside world, or the world at all. And if a prisoner were to escape and leave
the cave, they would be so frightened and confused by what they saw that they would
choose to come back to the comfort of their cave, of their reality. And just like the prisoners in the cave, what
we see in front of us we believe to be true, believe to be real. The difficulty in deciding if what we are
in right now is real life or simulated life is what NYU professor David Chalmers said
that, “any evidence that we get could be simulated.” And there is one important distinction to
make. We are not in a virtual world, a world that
exists independent of us actually being it. In that scenario we are players in a game
and there is a flesh and blood version of us somewhere controlling this. That is not the case with this idea. We are in a simulated world which means we
are not users, we are not players, we are simulated as well. As Phlip K. Dick said: Fake realities will
create fake humans. So why would anybody think that the universe
is simulated? Actually, we have five assumptions for you,
if they are correct, then you, dear viewer, are simulated. So follow me over to a different reality on
Kurzgesagt and, as always, thanks for watching.

How to avoid death By PowerPoint | David JP Phillips | TEDxStockholmSalon

How to avoid death By PowerPoint | David JP Phillips | TEDxStockholmSalon


Translator: Okay, ladies and gentlemen, welcome. There is a question which has puzzled me for quite a while, and that is, Why do our PowerPoints
look the way they look? Or rather, How on earth, can we accept
that they look the way they look? How can you do that? And do you know what’s even more intellectually
challenging for me to understand? It’s, How can a person sit over here
in this meeting room with 10 others, observing this dismally bad PowerPoint filled with charts,
graphical elements, page numbers, fading away five, seven minutes,
thinking of other things? You know the feeling,
the boredom, the waste of time? This person, after 40 minutes, he or she will stand up, a bit dazed, trotting off to his own office,
coming to his own computer, flipping it up, going like, ‘Oh my god,
I’ve got a presentation tomorrow, and I do have a PowerPoint to build.’ (Laughter) Now, what is the chance that this person
will build an equally bad PowerPoint as the one that he or she
was herself tortured by in the other conference room? Is that a big chance? Yeah. Now, what is that? Why do we do that? Is that vengeance? Is that where you go like,
‘You did that to me. Phew! I’m going to do it to you.
You got it coming, bro’? Is that the case? I don’t think so. I don’t think that’s got to do
with vengeance, intelligence. I think it’s got to do
with something else. Now, my passion in life is the brain, and an even bigger passion
that is presentation skills. And I love combining these two. And about four years ago, I got so, so upset I blew my top because the way
that we do neural executions all over our boardrooms today is just – it’s not fair to our intelligence
as being Homo sapiens. So I thought there’s got to be something
we can do about this, so I searched the world,
I looked for seminars, I looked for training programs,
I looked for books that could solve this question for me, but there was none to be found. So I thought, ‘Well,
I’ll just do as Franz Kafka said, “If it isn’t written, write it yourself.”‘ And four years later, I have the great honour
to stand here in front of you. What am I talking about? What are the PowerPoints I’m referring to? They can look like this. Now, this is one of the top three
universities in the world, advising their students and their teachers
on how to build great PowerPoints. I received this from a customer, and you’ve got to be semi-blind in order to even have something
like this in the company. I love this one. This one was awarded the prize
of being the worst PowerPoint delivered by a public CEO in 2010. It’s a nice prize to pick up, isn’t it? ‘Oh yes, thank you.’ (Laughs) Well done, mate. And then you’re like,
‘This is bad. Can it get worse?’ Yes, it can. (Laughter) Now, this is the UN in Afghanistan, the US military describing
the situation in the area. And, well, there are no comments on that. But then we get this one. ‘My god, David Phillips,
this has got to be the thing. This has got limited amounts of text. It’s got a supporting image. It’s got a clear headline. This is the truth.’ Well, the thing is, if you recognise yourself in any of these, which I think you do, nodding away, I want to make you aware of the following: that if you’ve delivered a presentation
with something like that behind you, 90% of what you said was gone within 30 seconds. And then you go, ‘No, no, no way, Jose, that is way – I know it’s bad,
but it can’t be that bad, can it now, really?’ Well, just let me give you an example
of really how bad your working memory is, and mine, for that case. I want you to imagine this situation. You’re at the train station,
waiting for the train. You can see it coming on the horizon. You’re fiddling away, you finally
find where you put your ticket. And you take it out, and you go,
‘Car five, seat 42. Got it.’ Have you? (Laughter) You have absolutely no idea
where you’re going to sit, do you? So, you’re like, ‘Is this only me, or …
Well, I’ll check. Five, 42.’ You put it down again. Have you got it? No, you haven’t got it. You’ll do this on an average of six times
before you sit down. I’ve seen people in the train go, ‘Five, 42, five, 42.
Yes, this is my seat, check.’ Now, the bad news
in the situation is this: you do not have a separate
working memory for PowerPoint and a separate working
memory for train tickets. It’s the same dismally bad
working memory for both activities. So, I might be harsh when I say this, but there is one man on this earth who knows more about the brain
than anybody else, one of the most leading neurologists
called John Medina, and he puts it like this. [If companies would have
as little respect for business as they have for presentations, the majority would go bankrupt.] And it’s with his words that I welcome you
to ‘How to Avoid Death by PowerPoint’. Now, my objective for this evening,
for these 18 minutes, is to give you five design principles that will cognitively and psychologically
optimise your PowerPoint slides. And if you haven’t used them before, they will make a tremendous difference to every PowerPoint you’ll be delivering
from this day and on. So, let’s start. The first one of these five
is one message. I received this from a customer, and I said, ‘Hey, we’ve got
a lot of issues in here, but let’s start with the first one. You’ve got two messages. Let’s move one of them out of the way,
and just bring one message per slide.’ So, why should we only
have one message per slide? Well, I’ll give you
this beautiful example. You’re at this nice party,
you’ve got the music going boom-boom, you’ve got this person
you’re chatting away to, you’re having a good time. (Imitates chatter) And then you hear your name;
you hear your name spoken somewhere. Your entire attention
is now diverted in that direction, and with this person,
you’re just nodding away hoping that you’re nodding
in the right instances, yeah? Yes, yes, yes. After a minute, this one
stops talking about you, so you divert your attention
straight again. Now, that person will then say,
‘Well, don’t you agree?’ And don’t we just love that situation? We have got no clue
what they’ve been talking about. The same thing goes for PowerPoint. If you’ve got more than one message, the chance is big they will be focusing
on this one and not that one, or that one and not this one. Just make it simple for human beings. Have one message per slide. We are extremely limited
to understanding more. Let’s move on. Go to working memory. I’ve already given you this bad vibe
that your working memory is bad, and I’m afraid I’m not coming
with better news. I’m coming with worse news,
and it goes like this. This equation has the basis
of John Sweller and Mayer, and they come to the conclusion that there is something in our brain
called ‘the redundancy effect’, and it works like this. If you have text, sentences
on your PowerPoint, and you persist with the annoying idea
of speaking at the same time, what will be remembered by the audience is zero. (Laughter) Or very close to zero. Now, why is that?
How does that come about? Well, it can’t look like this.
It’s just not practical. You can’t stand and have this
and talk at the same time. So, what are you supposed to do? Well, use PowerPoint
for what it’s supposed to be used for. Pick it like this, pull down your text
into the documentation field, and use the area up there
for the presentation material: short, sweet bits of text and an image. That is what enhances your image. That is what enhances your message. So use PowerPoint
as it’s supposed to be used. Come to the third
of these five principles, and that’s size. Before I go into that, I want to make you aware the following. Every time you open your eyes
for the rest of your life, you will focus on four things: moving objects, signalling colours,
like red, orange and yellow, contrast-rich objects and big objects
for the rest of your life. Give you a practical example of that. Imagine yourself being home
with a friend, a really good friend. Now, the television is on,
but the sound is off. You’re having a great conversation, but do you find it easy
to not look at the television? No. Why not? Because it’s got moving objects, it’s got signalling colours,
it’s high in contrast, and they’re usually very big these times. So, why not use this to our benefit? If you look at this,
where is your attention drawn to without you even having a chance
of controlling it? It’s going to the big three all the time. Have a look at the practical situation;
have a look at this. Where are your eyes drawn to? I can see that they’re drawn
constantly to the headline. Now, how often is the headline
the most important part in a PowerPoint? It’s very rare. Even so, every PowerPoint template
is built like this, where the headline is the biggest object,
and the content is the smallest – going absolute opposite
to our biological reactions. So, what does this look like
if we just show you an example? Well, now I’ve reduced the title,
and it looks like this. Do you see how your eyes
now fall down into the content? Now they’re sucked into the headline, (Laughter) and now they’re falling down
into the content. So I can control exactly where you are, but why do people build PowerPoints where people will be spending
70% of the time on the headline when it’s not the most important part? So, what I want you
to take with you from this is the most important part
of your PowerPoint should also be the biggest, nothing else. Moving on to number four, contrast. Contrast controls your focus. So, what does that look like? For instance, if I show you
a list like this, your eyes are over the place because you don’t really know
what to focus on. So, I’ll use a built-in functionality
into PowerPoint, which goes like this. I’ll show you the first subject,
I’ll take it away with contrast, and I’ll show you the second one, and I’ll do it again and again
and again and again. You’re now following
exactly the white spot. If I do this – dun-dun-dun-dun – I can see your eyes just wobbling around, and you’re a bit like a kitten going after
a little laser pointer on the wall, going like, ‘Where is it?
I’ve got it. I’ve got it.’ Because you’re following
where the white spot is, and not the rest. Now, this is a beautiful example. Please do use this. Use it because you can show
amazing big tables like this if you use the effect of contrast,
the principle of contrast. Look what this looks like. Your eyes are all over the place;
you don’t know what to focus on, but I just apply
the principle of contrast, and it looks like that, and suddenly,
you know exactly what to focus on. Here, they’re all over the place, and here, they’re exactly
where I want them. Now, there’s a big,
major drawback with PowerPoints, and that is that the majority
of companies on this earth today, they persist in having
white backgrounds in PowerPoint. Look at that. Oh, it’s bright, it’s shiny. Could you tell me who has
the highest contrast, me or the screen? Well, the screen. Who’s usually the biggest,
me or the screen? Well, the screen. So the only option I have
is dress myself up in signalling colours (Laughter) and jump around on stage
in order to balance that problem out, and that is obviously not
a good corporate strategy in the long term, would it be? I think the long-term strategy
is to just switch it around. PowerPoint is not supposed
to have white backgrounds. If I do this, your eyes relax. You focus on me. I’m the biggest object. I’m the most contrast-rich object. I got your focus. Why is that important? It’s important because I am,
I always have been, and I always will be the presentation. That is my visual aid. Moving into the last principle,
and that is objects. Now, this is one
of the most severe principles, and it goes like this. How many objects do I have here? If you count them quickly,
you’ll see that I’ve got 16. Do you see this little beauty
at the end as well which goes ‘page 12 of 95’? What is that? Why do we do that? That only creates anxiety. If anything, you are, ‘Oh my god,
I can’t take 83 more of those.’ (Laughter) But, it can also create hope because imagine … imagine when it’s 90 out of 95. ‘Oh, I can see the lights;
I can see the end of the tunnel.’ Kidding aside, don’t do that. Now, there are so many ideas out there on how many objects
you’re supposed to have in PowerPoint, and once and for all,
I just want to put my foot down and state to you
that this is the perfect amount. In order to do that,
I want you to just feel it yourself. How many objects are you supposed to have? And we’re going to do that
by showing you a couple of balls. I’ll throw up the balls. I want you to nod to me
when you’ve counted them. Simple instruction. You with me? Cool, here we go. Boom. Alright, takes you about two seconds. Good. Well done. Your next set of balls. Count them, and nod to me
when you’ve counted them. Here we go. Excellent. Yeah. That took you about 1.2 seconds
if you’re normal, which about 90% of you seem to be. (Laughter) We’ll have the third
set of balls, the last one. Look at this, nod to me
when you’ve counted them. Oh, what was that? I just pressed the button,
and you nodded simultaneously. That will, if you are normal,
take you 0.2 seconds, two-tenths of a second. This will take you 1.2,
this will take you two-tenths of a second. And for anyone of you who –
you’re good at math, you’ll find out that that number
is approximately 500% difference. How is that even remotely possible? There are only two objects in difference. Well, might I suggest the following: this one you have to count, and this one you see. Could that be correct? So what you’ve just experienced
is the following: that the cognitive process of counting takes 500% longer time,
requires 500% more energy resources to execute than just seeing. So, what I want you
to keep in mind at all times, what I want you to keep
in your head is this: [Sex] which is the Swedish number for this: [Six] (Laughter) The magical number is six. It’s not five, it’s not seven, it’s six. And I want to make you aware of this. When you go into
a presentation in the future, and you’ve built this amazing PowerPoint, if you’ve got more than seven objects,
or seven or more objects, you have to be aware
that all the people in there, they have to use 500% more energy
and cognitive resources to understand what’s in your PowerPoint. Now, how do you think their energy-saving brain
by nature behaves? Will it go like, ‘Ooh, I’ll easily
invest 500% more cognitive resources to understand this weird slide’ or, ‘I won’t’? ‘I won’t.’ And you’ve just incurred
death by PowerPoint. Now what does this look like in real life? Well, have a look at this. Sixteen objects – can we agree
that that’s too many? Yes, we can. So, what does it look like
if we reduce it? Look at this. We go from this to this. And this is where your brain goes, ‘Ahh’. And this is where your brain goes, ‘Ugh’. Ahh. (Laughter) Ugh. And I assume that in the future when you deliver PowerPoints
to your colleagues, to your fellow people, you want them to go, ‘Ahh’ when you show them your slides. You don’t want them to go, ‘Ugh’. Now, there is – have you seen this movie, ‘The Rain Man’ by Dustin Hoffman? Seen that? It’s a beauty, isn’t it? He comes into this cafeteria,
and somebody drops toothpicks, and he goes like, ‘Boom, 247.’ It’s amazing, isn’t it? His perceptive limit is here. Your perceptive limit (Laughter) is here. Now, what amazes me is that whichever country I go to,
whichever company I see, it seems like they build PowerPoints in the hope that all their fellow
colleagues are autistic or savants, (Laughter) which obviously is not the case. So, but then you go like this,
‘But, David, my god. This means that I have
to have more slides.’ (Laughter) ‘Yes, that is entirely correct. You have understood me clearly.’ I want to make one thing clear here, and that is that the amount of slides
in your PowerPoint has never been the problem. It is the amount of objects per slide
which has been the problem. The stupid idea that corporate organisations
all over the world – they’ve come up
with limitations going like, ‘Ooh, we’ve got this clever idea: You can’t use 40 slides.
You can only use four.’ So what do people do? (Laughter) Well, they take the content
of the rest 36, and they jam it in the first four. My god, is that counterproductive or what? And we call ourselves intelligent. No, no. Alright, so compared – I started off with 95 of those. We ended up with 135 of these. And yes, it gave an immediate result to the application
that we were working for. So, to summarise this. Let’s have some fun
and do a cross-examination because obviously
I have to prove my point. Do you remember
more than 90% of what I said? I’m not going to be that harsh. Let’s do a crossword instead. It’s going to go like this. Words are going to come up. I’m going to ask you to scream them out
as loud as you can as we go along. How many messages
are you supposed to have per slide? (Audience) One. One. Very good. (Laughter) I think you were looking
for a different word there. (Laughter) What can we use to steer our focus? (Audience) Contrast. Yes, and another one? (Audience) Size. Well done. What should we avoid using
if speaking at the same time? (Audience) Sentences. Beautiful. And what kind of background
should we have? We should have dark. And finally, now you can say it. How many objects per slide? Six. That is magnificent. Thank you very much. (Applause) (Cheers)

How to Argue – Philosophical Reasoning: Crash Course Philosophy #2

How to Argue – Philosophical Reasoning: Crash Course Philosophy #2


Crash Course Philosophy is brought to you
by Squarespace. Squarespace: share your passion with the world. Aristotle once described humans as “the
rational animal.” Well, actually, he said that “man is the
rational animal,” but we don’t have to be sexist just because he was. And if you’ve ever gotten into an argument
with someone about religion or politics or which Hemsworth is the hottest, then you’ve experienced
how irrational people can be about their opinions. But what Aristotle meant is that rationality
is our distinguishing characteristic – it’s what sets us apart from the beasts. And no matter how much you disagree with someone
about God or Obama or Chris Hemsworth, you can at least grant that they are not beasts. Because, most of the time at least, people
can be persuaded. By arguments. You use arguments all the time — in the comments,
at family dinners, with your friends — you probably just don’t think of them the same
way that philosophers do. When you try and convince your parents to
loan you the car, or when you’re talking up Crash Course to your friends, you are using
arguments. Thanks, by the way. Each time you tell someone to do or believe
something — or when you’re explaining why you do or believe something — you are giving
an argument. The problem is, the vast majority of people
aren’t really good at arguments. We tend to confuse making a good argument
with, like, having witty comebacks, or just making your points more loudly and angrily,
instead of building a case on a solid foundation of logic. Which can be harder than it sounds. But learning about arguments and strong reasoning
will not only make you a better philosopher, it will also set you up to be a more persuasive
person. Someone who people will listen to. Someone who’s convincing. So, yeah, these skills are beneficial no matter
what you want to do with your life. So you might as well know how to argue properly. [Theme Music] If you want to learn how to argue, then you
should probably start about 2400 years ago, when Plato was laying out how reason can,
and should, function in the human mind. He believed that we all have what he called
a tripartite soul – what you might think of as your “self,” or your psyche, divided
into three parts. First, there’s the rational, or logical
part of the soul, which represents cool reason. This is the aspect of your self that seeks
the truth and is swayed by facts and arguments. When you decide to stop eating bacon for two
meals a day because, as delicious as it is, it’s bad for you, then you make that decision
with the guidance of the rational part of your soul. But then there’s the spirited aspect, often
described as the emotional part of the self, although that doesn’t really quite capture
it. The spirited soul isn’t just about feeling
— it’s also about how your feelings fuel your actions. It’s the part that responds in righteous
anger at injustice, the part that drives your ambition, and calls upon you to protect others. It gives you a sense of honor and duty, and
is swayed by sympathy. So if you decide to stop eating bacon because
you just finished reading Charlotte’s Web, and now you’re in love with Wilbur, then
you’re being guided by the spirited part of your soul. But we share the next part of our soul with
other animals, be they pig, or moose, or aardvark. The appetitive part is what drives you to
eat, have sex, and protect yourself from danger. It is swayed by temptations that are carnal,
and visceral. So at those times when you go ahead and just
EAT ALL THE BACON because it just smells so dang good, the appetitive aspect of your soul
is in control. Now, Plato believed that the best human beings
— and I should point out here that Plato most definitely did believe that some people
were better than others — are always ruled by the rational part of their soul, because it works
to keep the spirited and the appetitive parts in check. People who allow themselves to be ruled by
their spirited or appetitive selves are base, he believed, and not fully, properly human. Now, most of us don’t buy into the concept
of the tripartite soul anymore — or the idea that some humans are less human than others. But we do understand that we’re all motivated by
physical desires, emotional impulses, and rational arguments. And philosophers continue to agree with Plato
that reason should be in the driver’s seat. So, how do you know if you’re good at it?
How can you test your reasoning? Well, let’s head over to the Thought Bubble
for some Flash Philosophy. Throughout this course, we’re going to apply our
philosophical skills by pondering puzzles, paradoxes, and thought experiments. Because remember: Philosophers love thinking about
questions — especially ones that don’t have ready answers. So think of these exercises as philosophical
wind-sprints — quick tests of your mental abilities. And here’s a doozy, from 20th century British
thinker Bertrand Russell, one of the pioneers of what’s known as analytic philosophy. Say there’s a town in which all men are
required by law to be clean-shaven. This town has only one barber, a man, who must follow
strict rules: Rule number one: He must shave all men who
do not shave themselves. Rule number two: He must not shave any man
who does shave himself. It’s the nightmare of every libertarian and every
mustachio’d hipster. But here’s the question: Does the barber shave himself? Cause think about it: The barber only shaves
men who don’t shave themselves. So if he does shave himself, then he must not, because the barber’s
not allowed to shave guys who shave themselves. But, if he doesn’t shave himself, then he has
to be shaved by the barber, because that’s the law. Russell came up with this puzzle to illustrate the
fact that a group must always be a member of itself. That means, in this case, that “all men
who shave themselves” has to include every guy who shaves himself, including the barber. Otherwise, the logic that dictates the group’s
existence just doesn’t hold up. And if the barber is a logical impossibility,
then he can’t exist, which means the reasoning behind his existence is inherently flawed. And philosophy doesn’t tolerate flawed reasoning. So, how do we make sure that we’re ruled
by good, sound, not-flawed reason? By perfecting the art of the argument. An argument, in philosophy, isn’t just a
shouting match. Instead, philosophers maintain that your beliefs
should always be backed up by reasons, which we call premises. Premises form the structure of your argument.
They offer evidence for your belief, and you can have as many premises as you like, as
long as they support your conclusion, which is the thing that you actually believe. So, let’s dissect the anatomy of an argument. There are actually several different species
of arguments. Probably the most familiar, and the easiest to carry out, is the deductive
argument. The main rule of a deductive arguments is: if your
premises are true, then your conclusion must be true. And knowing that something is actually true
is very rare, and awesome. So, here’s a boiled-down version of a good
deductive argument: Premise 1: All humans are mortal. Premise 2: Socrates is a human. Conclusion: Socrates is mortal. This kind of reasoning, where one fact leads
to another, is called entailment. Once we know that all humans are mortal, and that
Socrates is a human, those facts entail that Socrates is mortal. Deduction begins with the general – in this
case, what we know about human mortality – and reasons down to the specific – Socrates
in particular. What’s great about deductive arguments is
that the truth of the premises must lead to the truth of the conclusion. When this happens, we say that the argument
is valid – there’s just no way for the conclusion to be false if the premises are
true. Now check out this argument: All humans are mortal. Socrates is a human.
Therefore, Socrates was Plato’s teacher That argument is invalid, because nothing about human
mortality can prove that Socrates was Plato’s teacher. As you might have noticed, there are plenty
of mortal humans who never taught Plato. What’s interesting, though, is that this
argument does happen to have a true conclusion, which leads us to another issue. And that
is: Validity is not the same as truth. All ‘valid’ really means is that if the premises
are true, then your conclusion can’t be false. But that doesn’t mean that your
premises prove your conclusion to be correct. Like, in the case of whether Socrates was
Plato’s teacher, the premises are true, and the conclusion is true, but the argument
is still not valid — because the premises don’t in any way prove the conclusion. It
just happens to be true. So, if your premises don’t guarantee the truth of your
conclusion, then you can end up with some really crappy arguments. Like this one:
– All cats are mammals – I’m a mammal
– Therefore, I’m a cat As much as part of me would like to be my
cat, this is invalid because the conclusion doesn’t entail from the premises…at all. I mean, all cats are mammals, but all mammals
aren’t cats. Which means there are such things as non-cat mammals, which I am just
one example of. And it probably goes without saying, but you can
have a perfectly valid argument and still have a false conclusion, if any of your premises are false.
For example: – All humans have tails – My brother John is a human
– Therefore, John Green has a tail! The argument is totally valid! – Because the premises
entail the conclusion! The reasoning totally stands up! It’s just that one of the premises is flawed. Since I’m reasonably certain that John doesn’t
have a tail — I’ve seen him in a bathing suit — this argument is not deductively sound. And a deductively sound argument is one that’s
free of formal flaws or defects. It’s an argument whose premises are all
true, and that’s valid, which means its conclusion is guaranteed to be true. So, sound arguments should always be your
goal. The reason that deduction is prized by philosophers
— and lots of other important kinds of thinkers — is that it’s the only kind of argument
that can give you a real certainty. But it’s limited, because it only works if you’re starting
with known, true premises, which are hard to come by. And for what it’s worth, deductive truths
are usually pretty obvious. They don’t tend to lead us to startlingly new information, like the fact
that I’m not a cat, or that John doesn’t have a tail. So instead of starting with premises that
are already certain, like deduction does, you’re gonna have to know how to determine
the truth of, and your confidence in, your premises. Which means you’re going to have to acquaint
yourself with the other species of arguments, which we’re gonna do next time. But today, we talked about the value of reason,
the structure of arguments, and we took a close look at one kind of argument: deductive
reasoning. This episode of Crash Course Philosophy is
made possible by Squarespace. Squarespace is a way to create a website, blog or online
store for you and your ideas. Squarespace features a user-friendly interface, custom
templates and 24/7 customer support. Try Squarespace at squarespace.com/crashcourse for a special
offer. Crash Course Philosophy is produced in association
with PBS Digital Studios. You can head over to their channel to check out amazing shows like The
Art Assignment, The Chatterbox, and Blank on Blank. This episode of Crash Course was filmed in
the Doctor Cheryl C. Kinney Crash Course Studio with the help of all of these amazing people
and our Graphics Team is Thought Cafe.

Teaching art or teaching to think like an artist? | Cindy Foley | TEDxColumbus

Teaching art or teaching to think like an artist? | Cindy Foley | TEDxColumbus


Translator: Jihan Chara
Reviewer: Denise RQ We are going to get started
with some kindergarten image-word match. I would like each of you to determine what is the word that matches
the image in number seven. Starting to come up with some ideas? Good. Get them in your head
because I want to share with you what my daughter Adeline chose. (Laughter) Adeline chose ‘art,’ and as her parent,
I thought that was awesome, but this is an incorrect answer
according to the testing guide. The correct answer is ‘mud,’
and I’m sure that’s what you all chose. Right, right? How can something
so nebulous be so concrete? Actually, I think this quiz
is a fitting analogy for the problem in art education today. Art education has been impacted by the standards and testing culture
like all other disciplines, and in a lot of ways, we’ve been focusing
on teaching things that are concrete. Things like elements of art,
art history, and foundational skills. In essence, we’re teaching things
that we can test and assess. But I believe art education needs to focus on developing learners
that think like artists. Learners who are creative, curious,
seek questions, develop ideas, and play, which means we need
to be much more intentional about how we communicate
art’s critical value and how we teach for creativity. So, creativity – let’s do
a little case making around this. Most of this you know. Creativity is being touted
by business leaders like the folks at IBM, by educational reformists, by economists, even folks as Dan Pink as the number one thing we need for student success,
economic growth, and general happiness. We also know the creativity scores
in this country are on the decline, that Torrance creativity test,
which has been administered for decades, has now shown, since the 1990s, a decline, especially in ages 6 to 12
in the United States. We also know due to Sir Kenneth
Robinson’s now famous TED Talk that schools are
fundamentally and foundationally challenged to cultivate creativity. But I’m going to share
with you some research that the Wallace Foundation did
with Harvard’s Project Zero in which they found the number one thing
quality art education can do is develop “the capacity to think creatively
and the capacity to make connections.” So then why is there such a disconnect between creativity and art education? I think there’s actually
a couple of reasons why. But we are going to focus on
communication and messaging. Those of us in the field
have been working to really move art education
out of a defensive place. We’ve been trying to make
a case for our own existence, and we’re trying to move it more
towards an offensive message especially around creativity. But we’re not there yet, and so, we’re going to place that
for another talk, at another time. Instead, I want to focus on a message I think is much more
problematic and pervasive – and I hate to put you on the spot, but I actually feel you are to blame. I mean, not you per se,
but you as a group of people who actually really support art education Let me give some context. As a parent, I often hear adults
saying things to children, as well as to other adults,
and to the educators, things like this, “Oh, my goodness! Look how well
you’ve drawn that horse! It’s so realistic! You’re so creative!” You’ve heard messages like that before? Here’s another one
I think I hear almost daily, “Oh, Cindy! I really support
art education. It is very important!
I mean, I’m not creative. I don’t have a creative bone in my body.
I can’t even draw a stick figure.” (Laughter) These messages are incredibly
problematic and the more … You may not think they are a big deal, but the more society pushes them out and continues to foster these cliche notions
of what is creativity, the harder it is
for those in the field, like me, to begin moving
towards teaching for creativity. Teaching for creativity.
What do I mean by that? I believe teaching for creativity is
embodying the habits the artists employ. Habits in particular, there are three that I think are essential to creativity. They are: one – comfort with ambiguity, two – idea generation,
and three – transdisciplinary research. We’re going to talk
about those in a moment, but first, we’re going to do
a little audience participation. I would like each of you
to use something on your person: paper, pencil, your program,
phone, glasses; it doesn’t matter. And I’d like you –
you’ll just get a couple of minutes – to actually create something
that represents the idea of metaphor. Go ahead. (indistinct chatter in the audience) Alright. Be honest. How many of you had a surge of panic
when I just asked you to do that? (Laughter) I want you to savor that sensation. You actually are off the hook, but I want you to savor
that sensation for a moment. What you just experienced is, I think,
the number one obstacle to creative work: that discomfort, and that discomfort
is ambiguity, it’s not-knowing. I actually learned this
from a group of teachers. We’d been working with them,
and they told us, “You know what? We find that it’s really difficult to engage our students in creative work,
in particular, open-ended projects. It just makes it really hard.” Ironically enough, later that afternoon,
we had that same group of teachers, and we gave them a challenge
similar to the one I just gave you. Interestingly enough, almost immediately, a couple of them announced
they needed to leave for the day. (Laughter) Another group needed
a break at that moment, and still, others stayed in the classroom but refused to participate
in the activity. What we realized is students struggle with ambiguity
because we all do. Artists, on the other hand, realize
that ambiguity is part of the process. They take it, they identify it,
and they tackle it head on. If artists are doing this,
can’t you imagine if art education was a place where we knew students could go
to prepare for lives of not knowing? I work at the Columbus Museum of Art,
and for years now, we provided the kind of art education
that our community requested. So for example, when we had an exhibition
of the work of Claude Monet, we taught about his history, we allowed folks to experiment
with his materials and his process, and then, we finally
would create lesson plans and allow others to do the same. In essence, what we were doing was generating content
and allowing folks to make mini-Monets. But then it dawned on us we were not actually engaging them
in what made Monet Monet. And that was the way he thought;
Monet’s ideas were revolutionary. He questioned the natural world,
the way we see, he questioned the politics of the time, and that’s what made
his work so exceptional. It was at this moment we realized we needed to be teaching
for idea generation. So I’m going to have you jump with me now
from one artist to another. (Laughter) The Lego movie gave us such a gift
when they presented the movie this summer. More or less, what they said was creativity is not the Lego kid
in the direction booklet but creativity is the bucket of Legos
and the potential for ideas within. Legos are just another material
like drawing materials to help us make ideas manifest. What I loved about this movie was the idea of the master builder or the person who has
the courage to have ideas. But it dawned on me, in much of education,
the master builders are the educators. They’re the ones who have ideas,
great lesson plans. But students are secondary
to that process. Students are often
more of the artist’s assistant, or sometimes, even just the factory worker
getting the project done. Visualize a classroom
full of master builders, a classroom full
of master builders at play. Yes, play. Play is essential. Play is a surefire way
to kickstart ideation. Artists play. They play in a number of ways. They either play with materials
until ideas begin to manifest or they play with ideas until they realize what media or materials
they need to bring that into reality. Imagine an art education
where educators were comfortable with the ambiguous classroom where student ideas
and interests lead the learning. So I need to be honest with you: nothing in my career,
my education, or my teaching has influenced my thinking
as much as being married to an artist. I am married to Sean Foley, and what I can tell you about artists
is that they’re voracious researchers. They will research anything –
bizarre things. And what I’ve learned is that they’ll do anything
that furthers their thinking. Let me give you an example. About ten years ago, Sean had this idea that if painting were dead
what if he were doctor Frankenstein? He immediately rereads Mary Shelley.
He rewatches all the classic horror films. He then devours books at the library on natural history, history
of medicine, anomalies of nature. He then starts purchasing
taxidermic animals. (Laughter) But then, he informs me
that we need to go to London. He must go to London in order to study
the museums of the pre-Enlightenment, and in particular,
the early operating theaters. So in essence, his research manifest, and Sean ends up making
monsters of his own, like this one. So what Sean was engaged in
is transdisciplinary research or research that serves curiosity. Imagine if the future of education
was not about discrete disciplines but rather was about disciplines
like math, art, and science being in service to ideas. What kind of spaces might we create
in order to foster that type of thinking? Could we create centers for creativity where we cultivate, champion,
and measure this type of thinking? I don’t want you for a minute
to stop championing art education, but I do want you to be thoughtful
about the chant. When we say we want creativity
in our schools, we often say, “Don’t kill the arts,” But today, I want that battle cry
to address art’s critical value, “Don’t kill the ideas.” I want my own children
to think like artists no matter what career path
they may choose. I believe art education is essential
for 21st century learning. And with your help, we can flip
the counterproductive messaging and allow our educators
to develop centers for creativity where ideas are king and curiosity reigns. Thank you. (Applause)

Digital Photography and Digital Media Arts Private View – London South Bank University – LSBU

Digital Photography and Digital Media Arts Private View – London South Bank University – LSBU


I’m the gallery coordinator at the Menier
Gallery, and currently at the moment we are having a great private view for the London
South Bank University student degree show from BA Digital Photography and BA Digital
and Media Arts. To put on our kind of final piece, after three
years at university, kind of show our portfolio and our final major project, and to kind of
graduate I guess. The DMA students, Digital Media Art students,
and the Digital Photography students, have all planned a big project and put each individuals
on their own individual projects. I’m a dancer. I love to dance and I thought the
most I’m going to get out of this project is if I do something I am passionate about.
And my work is kind of circulating around the unexpected activities of everyday life.
I had a dancer to work around with as well, so I got to combine movement and the unexpected
activity and dramas of everyday life. Our students are really interested in the
potential of interaction and play of digital media, but also the potential of digital images
to inspire and shock, and question the world. And here are some 3D works by Liam King, where
he combines images of the body and machines and technology. Its very nerve racking, and you don’t prepare,
or at least I certainly didn’t prepare for people looking at the work, so it was kind
of, quite new. It’s not something I’ve experienced before, but it’s good all the
same. What we’ve provided is the foundation to
move into a massive area of kind of cultural and creative industries; An industry that
supports the British economy to something like fifty billion pounds every year. And
it is a sector of the work force that is growing year on year. So the opportunities for students
out there are enormous. You know we make sure the practical skills
they acquire really prepare them for various avenues of employment. It means you can walk
into a professional photographic studio and become a valued assistant from day one. It’s satisfying to see people look at our
work. I mean we worked so hard to just produce something for this gallery. And for people
to come in and appreciate that, it is really rewarding. I think it’s good, we’ve had a good turnout,
a lot of people have come and they seem to be enjoying themselves. A lot of people have
done better than they have thought they were doing. There was a lot of people with doubt,
with a lot of people saying “not sure about my work, whether I can hang it, if I’m going
in time.” So I think it’s been good and people are happy you know, people are successful. I think it’s fantastic, really busy, great
atmosphere. I believe the students have done really well picking and choosing their work
to not cramming the gallery with too much stuff. I was a bit nervous with loads of people seeing
your work, for the first time. Graduate with three years worth of work and suddenly it’s
all over, but it’s been really good, a really good experience, and I’m glad we’ve done
it. It’s going really well, there is a lot of
good response and I’m really excited for my future. The space is fantastic; the quality of the
work is fantastic. Well I think it’s a very successful event.
One of the lovely things is that I see students who graduated 4-5 years ago, coming to see
the competition. as they say. Digital Media Arts is a very good course,
it’s varied, and it’s not concentrated on one path, so it gives you different options.
Third year was a big difference from second year. I felt that we were just focusing on
our career development, which is really good, because we worked on our business cards and
our portfolios. So when we do graduate, we don’t have to start from scratch, and at-least
we don’t have to jump a few stones up. Students of mine have gone on to become designers,
flash developers, and game designers. They really help set students up for a future
career within the creative industry. If you put the hours in you can achieve the
work and you can do it. But if you don’t, well then it’s up to you, for you to put
the work in. I can see my development over the period of
three years, and I’ve come quite a long way from where I initially begun and I think
more prepared to go out into the big world.

How Budget Airlines Work

How Budget Airlines Work


Two weeks ago, I posted a video on why flying
is so expensive, and, people seemed to like it, however, they wanted to know, how are
budget airlines so cheap? Well it’s another complex answer but an interesting one. For
the purposes of simplicity, and to keep our European friends from feeling left out, we’ll
focus on the European model of budget airlines. While there are low-cost carriers in North
America, South Africa, India, Asia, and plenty of other places, budget airlines really were
first successful in Europe and that’s where they’re still most prominent today. The
magnitude to which airlines like Ryanair and EasyJet reduce the cost in Europe is also
much more significant. Budget airlines in the US might be 10 or 20% less expensive than
their traditional competitors while in Europe a fare on a budget airline might only cost
half or a third of what you would pay to a normal airline. You can regularly find 2-3
hour flights on budget airlines for less than 10 euros
So how do they work? Well, unsurprisingly, budget airlines essentially take every expensive
part of the flight and make them less expensive. The most essential thing an airline needs
is airplanes and it is possible to spend less on those. In the months and years following
9/11, the growth of air travel stalled and most airlines were simply fighting to survive.
Meanwhile, Ryanair was thriving and placed a massive order of 151 737’s from Boeing
at unbelievably low-prices. A circumstance like that luckily isn’t frequent but budget
airlines can place large orders at any time which gives them a bulk discount. It might
seem weird that a budget airline would buy brand new airplanes, but the newest planes
are the most efficient which saves fuel. The fuel efficiency of new aircraft offsets the
higher purchase price, so EasyJet (4.0), JetBlue (4.7), Ryanair (5.0), and Spirit Airlines
(5.7) all have younger fleets than any major airline (KLM 9.4, Air France 11.5, Lufthansa
12.4). Budget airlines will also typically have only one type of plane. Ryanair only
operates 737’s and EasyJet only operates the a320 family. Having only one type of Aircraft
means that pilots, flight attendants, mechanics, and ground staff only need to be trained on
one type of aircraft which saves an enormous amount of time and money. Within the planes,
budget airlines will often avoid luxuries to keep costs down. Ryanair seats, for example,
don’t recline because that increases the initial purchase price for seats and also
requires more maintenance. The seat design also saves time for flight attendants since
there are no seatback pockets to clean between flights.
Flight attendants on budget airlines are often in the beginning of their careers and receive
little training. Of course they’ll get the required safety training but only minimal
hospitality training. They’ll also often serve multiple roles. While on the ground,
some of the flight attendants might go to the gate and check tickets while others clean
the airplane. Through this, the airline eliminates three or four positions that they regularly
would pay for. Onboard, flight attendants are of course responsible for food and drinks
which are almost never free. Onboard service can be an excellent way for the airline to
make money. Many budget airlines also do duty free sales and Ryanair even sells lottery
tickets. Let’s talk Airports. You’re never going
to see Ryanair fly to London Heathrow or Paris Charles de Gaulle because those airports are
expensive. There’s only a set amounts of flights per day that can operate out of them
so supply and demand dictates that landing fees are high and slots are regulated. Instead,
Ryanair flies to Gatwick, Stansted, or Luton in London or Beauvais in Paris, which, by
the way, is a 80 minute bus ride away from Paris, isn’t even technically in the same
region of Paris, and has a website that looks like this! In a lot of cases, Ryanair or other
budget airlines are the only or one of a few airlines flying out of an airport which gives
them huge negotiating power. Often they will take a small regional airport a ways away
from a city and rebrand it as another city airport. They can ask for lower landing and
takeoff prices and, if the airport doesn’t comply, just leave and the airport will essentially
cease to exist. If there isn’t a viable cheap airport available around a city, budget
airlines can also fly to regular airports at less busy times when landing fees and the
chance of delay might be lower. Now let’s get into the nitty-gritty—the
small details. The planes of budget airlines tend to operate all day non-stop. For example,
in one day, this Ryanair plane went from Brussels to Copenhagen, Copenhagen to Brussels, Brussels
to Prague, Prague to Brussels, Brussels to Nimes, Nimes to Brussels, Brussels to Trevioso,
then finally Trevioso to Brussels. Budget airlines will schedule only 30-45 minutes
between the landing of one-flight to the take-off of another which often leads to delays and
leaves very little time to clean the aircraft. This does, however, mean that the airplane
is always making money and passengers are not paying for the time it’s sitting around.
Ever wonder why Southwest doesn’t have reserved seating? Well by having a first come first
serve system for seats, people almost always show up to the gate early and line up in an
orderly line. This way, less time is spent on the ground boarding and more time in the
air flying. Another principle of budget airlines is the point-to-point model. Most traditional
airlines have hubs where most or all of their flights go in and out of. British Airlines
has London, Air France has Paris, KLM has Amsterdam. To get to most places on these
airlines, you have to connect through their hubs. Budget airlines, on the other hand,
try to have a lot of destinations from everywhere. That does mean, however, that many destinations
are served only a few times per week. The cheapest budget airlines don’t even allow
for connections between their flights. Allowing connections adds cost because then you have
to pay for ground crews to transfer bags, create a more complicated ticketing system,
and pay to rebook a passenger if a delay in their first flight makes them miss their second.
Speaking of ticketing, there’s often no way to get a ticket from a real person on
budget airlines. Ryanair charges 45 pounds if you fail to print your boarding pass at
home and EasyJet and some other carriers have almost all their check-in’s handled by machines.
This, once again, cuts down on personnel costs. At the airport, these budget airlines won’t
bother using jetways because they’re expensive. They’ll use steps and just have passengers
walk across the tarmac or take a bus to the plane.
Budget airlines make a lot of money, if done right. EasyJet (11.15%), Ryanair (24.10%),
and Wizz Air (10.2%) all have higher profit margins than Lufthansa (4.03%), British Airways
(7.09%), and Air France (2.15%). Many of the traditional airlines have unionized workers
with salary agreements that cannot be changed while the budget airlines can hire anyone
and train them in a few months. It’s also hard for these traditional airlines to grow.
Any route they make has to be one with a lot of preexisting demand since much of their
business comes from business travelers. Since budget airlines are targeted more towards
tourists, any destination that Ryanair, for example, opens up in will become a popular
destination just because it’s possible to go there for so cheap. Some traditional airlines
in Europe are opening their own budget airlines to get in on this profit. Air France created
Transavia and Lufthansa created Eurowings, both of which are losing massive amounts of
money. What they seem to forget is that the US went through this budget airline within
an airline phase a couple decades ago. Delta created Song, which failed. US Airways created
MetroJet, which failed. United created Shuttle, which failed, then they went into bankruptcy
and decided they should try again and make Ted, which failed. None of these worked! Traditional
airlines can’t get away from their labor agreements, honest business practices, and
devotion to their hubs. The reason Ryanair and EasyJet are able to succeed where others
have failed is largely because they are so large and flexible. They have hundreds of
planes, hundreds of destinations, thousands of employees, and negotiating power that allows
them to overpower competitors. In the end, for us consumers, any competition is good
competition. Even failing budget airlines will bring down the cost of traditional airlines
and allow us to travel the world for less. Thank you for watching. I hope you enjoyed
this video. Make sure to click subscribe and follow me on twitter @wendoverpro. If you
want to discuss this video with me and others, I’ll link the first reddit thread of my
video here. I’ll be back next week with another episode from That Wikipedia List.

Total Beginner’s Guide to Video Equipment

Total Beginner’s Guide to Video Equipment


So, you’re ready to start making videos—good! But what type of camera should you use,
where will you record, is it quiet enough? Which mic? What about the lights? Editing? So many questions. Making videos can be very intimidating,
so come along and let’s figure this out together,
one step at a time. What’s up beautiful people,
it’s your homegirl Maya Shameless all up in your building. And today we’re going to be talking
about how to jumpstart your video-making. To be a YouTube creator, you need to have
foundational knowledge of video production. Now, every creator has their own process,
based on their own style, their goals. So, as we break this creative process down,
make sure you guys keep that in mind. Some people want
that glossy, high-quality video while others are OK with
something that’s super-fast and quick so long as they have lots of uploads. So, as we go through, think to yourself,
“how could these tips benefit my channel?” Let’s get started with
your number one asset: your camera. Here are two of the top camera options that we’re going to be
going over with you right now. A basic point-and-shoot camera,
and a more sophisticated DSLR. Now, if you wanna know
more specifics about brands you can always check out reviews
and tutorials from other YouTube creators. But first, let’s go over
how each of these cameras work and how they can help your channel. A point-and-shoot camera is gonna cost you
something like $400–$700 USD and they’re really simple and easy to use. They’re a kind of all-in-one device
that’s great for frequent vlogging in almost any setting. You can get one
with a reversible LED screen as well so you can even see your shot. Here’s some actual footage
from a point-and-shoot camera. You can see that,
even though it’s a simpler camera it still has that nice, HD1080 look which is why so many top creators
use them for their everyday videos. Now, let’s compare that to a DSLR. Don’t worry what that stands for,
it doesn’t matter. What does matter is that
you’re gonna get a much more cinematic look that has a nice, blurry background. And because of this,
a DSLR is going to be more expensive often ranging from $500 to $2,500 USD. DSLRs are heavier,
and they use interchangeable lenses You’re going to need to be
on top of getting focused and learning more technical aspects
of using the camera. But don’t even worry about it,
there are plenty of tutorials on YouTube that will show you how to do this
if you are interested in learning more. That being said, you can see the difference. Pulling focus gives you
that soft-focus background that comes across as very professional. Let’s take a look compared to
that point-and-shoot camera from before. See the difference? Now, before I move on,
I’m going to throw in an honorable mention. Nowadays, a lot of people are able to use…
Yes, their cell phones as their cameras. This isn’t going to give you the same quality but it’s definitely impressive. It’s a great option if you’re not looking
to spend a lot on a camera and you just want to
start practicing on YouTube right now. Let’s move onto sound,
you might want to pay attention to this one because this is easily the place
where most first-timers mess up. That’s because, while most viewers
sometimes don’t mind low-quality lighting they cannot stand low-quality sound. So, if you’re still using
your camera’s on-board microphone make sure you’re staying
between 3 and 4 feet from the camera and if you want to get
any further away from that that’s where you have
to get into more advanced options. So, this is a shotgun microphone. It’s recording
what you’re actually hearing right now and it runs you anywhere
between $150 and $250 USD. Now, these microphones
have directional recording. So, whatever it’s directly pointed to,
it’s gonna pick up. As long as your camera has
a port for an external microphone you can just pop this on top and you are set. But, what if you want a much wider shot? That’s when you use this guy:
a wireless lavalier microphone, or a ‘lav’. Now, a lav kit can be anywhere
between $200 and $600 USD—so a little pricier but if you need to be further away
from the camera, it is a life saver. And a lavalier is also great
when you’re in a nosier location. Here’s an example of a lav at work. I’m outside,
I’m standing super far away from the camera and I’m in a really tricky location. But I’m still getting
really great quality sound. Let’s switch over to the shotgun mic,
and see how that stands up. So here’s an example
of a shotgun mic out here. Not as great, right? Now, out of curiosity,
let’s switch over to the onboard camera mic and see how that stands up. OK, so here it is. Can you hear me? Back to the lav, so much better. I’m going to throw in
another quick honorable mention. If you’re really getting more advanced,
and looking for a cinematic approach look into getting a boom microphone. That’s where someone else is
actually holding a mic over your head on what’s called a boom pole during shooting. It has great quality sound and again, this is only
if you’re looking to bring on a bigger crew. Most creators will be good to go with either
a shotgun mic or a lav that we talked about. Both work to capture your voice,
but some are better than others depending on what you’re shooting
or where you’re shooting. But again, it’s all about what
your specific needs are as a creator. So, let’s move onto lighting. This is super important because it’s what’s going to help you
show off your most important asset: yourself. Most creators use
something similar to what I’m using right now which is a two-point lighting system. That’s two soft boxes lighting your face. One important tip that I have,
especially if you get hot easily is to look into LED or fluorescent lights. They run from $400 to $2,000 USD,
but stay cooler than incandescent lights. You can also try to
light up the background or play around a bit. But most importantly,
show off your best self. As you can see here,
one of the best things about the soft boxes is that they create soft light
as opposed to hard light. When it comes to your face,
you always wanna make sure you go with soft because it means it diffuses the light
and it’s more flattering. It’s the same reason lamps have lampshades. Another option
for soft, flattering light is a ring light. A ring light works really well
to light up your whole face and give you that pop of eye light. It’s basically a one-stop beauty light. Our final lighting option
is not only the brightest light in existence it’s also completely free. The sun. A lot of creators just
sit in front of a bright window to get that nice,
natural light on their face. Obviously this has limits
in terms of the time of day you can shoot but it’s still one of the easiest
and cheapest options out there to get your glow on. So, let’s see those three lighting options
back to back now. The soft boxes
give you a really polished look the ring light is great for beauty lighting and the window brings
an easy way to light up your face. They all work to keep you looking lit,
so, what’s best for you and your channel? So, you’ve made it to
our last video-making topic: editing. Now editing is like a puzzle,
you’re going to take each piece of footage and stitch them together to tell your story. It can get a little technical,
but don’t let that discourage you. If you’re just beginning,
there are a lot of great programs that are probably
already on your computer right now. For example, you might already have
iMovie if you’re on a Mac or Windows Movie Maker if you’re on a PC. Focus first on learning
how to do a simple cut. That way you can cut together
your favorite pieces of footage just by dragging those pieces
next to each other.>From there, you can learn how to use
transitions, music or even effects. Once you get the basics down you can always consider
purchasing more advanced software. Some creators use editing programs
like Adobe Premiere, Final Cut or Avid which can be anywhere
between $100 and $1,000 USD. New creators, just stick to free programs,
but just keep that in mind, you have options. Of course if you want
a more specific recommendation on brands or models give it a quick search on YouTube. You know creators are always passionate
about sharing the tools they use and they have tons of great reviews out there
that can help you make the right decision. But first, one more quick lesson. Don’t wait for the perfect equipment:
start now. Practice with whatever you have,
and improve with each video. OK, I hope that helps you jump into YouTube. What advice do you have
for people getting started? Do you have a favorite piece of equipment
you’d recommend? Let me know in the comments below,
and help each other out. Now that you’ve got your equipment,
ready to master the production skills? Check out this course
on YouTube Creator Academy.

Introduction to studying Photography

Introduction to studying Photography


A warm welcome to Middlesex
University and its photography programs, BA Photography and MA Photograpy
In this short series of films, you will hear about the achievements of
the students at Middlesex University, and see the facilities that are available at
Middlesex University that make the courses so successful.
The following video shows that evidence of a consistently high standard of work by
the Middlesex photography students. Middlesex this year won the Best in Show
at the Truman Free Range. Its graduates, since the beginning of the course a few
years ago, have won several D&AD; New Blood gold medal awards.
They’ve been selected most years for the Taylor
Wessing Photographic Portrait Prize, including last year’s John Kobal Award,
and its students and graduates have been selected for each of the three 5 UNDER 30
exhibitions at the Daniel Blau Gallery. When studying at Middlesex University,
our students are able to use a large range of photographic equipment and facilities.
We still fully support traditional film processes, and have a black-and-white
processing area. To accompany this,
we have two very well-equipped black-and- white darkrooms that can be used for
printing fiber-based papers as well as resin-coated papers.
We also have a hand- printing color dark room with individual
booths and an RA-4 processing machine. There are a wide range of cameras
available for hire, for free. Occasion lighting equipment is available.
Electronic flash, lighting stands, light modifiers, softbox,
umbrellas, and reflectors. We also have an extensive digital
darkroom. It’s fully equipped with 60 color-managed workstations and Wacom
tablets. We also have a large number of
printers, with sizes ranging from A4 up to A0.
We have three large photographic studios that have been built and equipped to
professional standards. We also have a smaller table-top studio space that can be
used to produce still-life and product work to a very high level.
Finally, all of the photography facilities at Middlesex are staffed
by one of the best technical teams in the country.
The photography workspaces have proven to be a very successful
meeting place for our students across the years, where help and
advice can always be found. If you want to keep up-to-date with
Middlesex photography, you can find us on Twitter and Tumblr.
Please visit us on one of our open days if you’d like to see the
facilities. If you can’t make it on one of
the open days, please contact us, and we’d be happy to show you
around at any other time to suit you.