Fred Armisen, Art Aficionado: Freedom from Want by Norman Rockwell

Fred Armisen, Art Aficionado: Freedom from Want by Norman Rockwell


-Fred, there are
so many reasons that I am thankful
to call you a friend. One is that
you’re a man of many talents — so many that I feel like people can’t even list everything
that you’re good at. But one thing I did not know, that you filled me in on
this week, is that you
are an art connoisseur. -Oh, yeah.
I know all art. -Yeah.
[ Laughter ] And I feel like when you say
things like, “I know all art,” people assume,
“Oh, I know a lot about art,” but you’re actually saying you have an
art historian’s knowledge not just of one type of art
or one era of art. You know everything
about every single painting that has ever been painted. -Every single painting,
since the very first one. [ Laughter ] -What was the first one? -It was the beginnings —
it was unfinished — of one of the cave drawings.
-Uh-huh. -And he just started drawing,
like, the sort of the top of the head
and the back of the neck. And it was really good work.
It was really — It’s hard to find.
-Yeah. It’s hard to find? -Yeah.
-Yeah, I would imagine. ‘Cause it’s in a cave.
-Yeah. [ Laughter ] -But, Fred, I do want to stress,
if this is something you just — ‘Cause sometimes you get
a little nervous with people, and then you overstate things. If this isn’t true,
we don’t have to do this. -No, I want to do this.
-Okay. [ Laughter ] -‘Cause I would feel bad
if I put you on the spot and made you explain a painting
if this is not a true thing. -No, I enjoy this.
-Okay. -It’s time once again
for our segment, “Fred Armisen, Art Aficionado.” [ Cheers and applause ] -You guys.
All right, here we go, Freddie. You ready?
Here we go. You hold it like this. Fred, this is Norman Rockwell’s 1943 painting
“Freedom From Want.” Fred, what can you tell us — Using your
art historian’s knowledge, what can you tell us
about this painting? -It’s a very funny story. I know the story
behind this painting. He was working on
something else. [ Laughter ]
And, um… And his boss
at the art company was like, “We want a painting
of salt and pepper shakers.” Right? So they’re like,
“Can you do that?” He’s like, “What? Here.” So he started painting it,
and — So he started
doing those right there? -Yeah.
-Okay. -He’s like,
“There’s your painting. Thank you very much.
Send me the check, whenever.” And —
-How long did Norman Rockwell work at the art company? -His career.
His whole career. -Oh, his whole career,
he was at the same art company? They’re like,
“We hire you for paintings.” -Okay. Gotcha.
Sorry, I cut you off. So, he finishes
the salt and pepper? -And he sends it to them.
“Hey, thanks a lot. I’m gonna work on
my other paintings.” And they sent it back. They’re like,
“Can you add the face of a lady looking at the
salt and pepper shaker?” And he’s like,
“All right. Great.” So they kept doing this
back and forth, so this is one of
the first paintings where he did it,
actually, angrily, where he’s like,
“Oh, my God, here, here. Here.” “Can you put a turkey
on a plate?” He’s like, “Oh, my —
Here, here! Here you go! There. Are we done?
Are we finished with this?” And he kept sending it back. And they were like,
“We know you’re mad. We are so sorry.
This is just, like, what we want.”
-Yeah. -“So, can you put some
white curtains behind them, and then,
we promise we’re done.” He was like, very quickly,
with a house paintbrush, behind them —
-Oh, wow! Like very passive-aggressively,
it sounds like, yeah? -Oh, yeah, yeah.
Yes, he had his ways. -And so he sent it to them. But the guy was posing
for the front of the painting… -Uh-huh.
That guy. [ Laughter ] -An actual guy posed for that.
-Yeah. Like, decided during the thing
to, like, turn back at him, and he’s like, “I don’t care. I’m just doing it
the way I see it.” -Oh! So this was supposed to be
the back of the head… -Yes!
-…and the guy turned around to look at Norman Rockwell,
and he, like, angrily was like, “Fine.
I’ll paint it like that”? -Yeah. He’s like,
“This is what they want? Great. I guess
he’s looking at the camera.” -So, this right here,
this famous thing, this is a mistake, basically.
-A mistake, yes. -Wow.
-Yeah. -What an education.
-Yeah. -Thank you so much, Fred.
-Oh, you’re very welcome. -Happy Thanksgiving.
-Happy Thanksgiving. -Give it up
for Fred Armisen, everybody.

Samsung Galaxy S11 – Camera Analysis

Samsung Galaxy S11 – Camera Analysis


Camera code analysis: Samsung is really working
on its own 108-megapixel smartphone In early November, the famous informant in
the person of Ice_Universe announced that Samsung will use its own 108-megapixel sensor
for the main camera in the Galaxy S11 (possibly even the second generation) in the upcoming
flagship Galaxy S11. Since the company already produces such ISOCELL
Bright HMX sensors, integration into high-end smartphones is quite logical. Xiaomi is currently the only manufacturer
to launch smartphones using the 108-megapixel 1 / 1.33 “sensor ( Mi Note 10, Mi CC9 and
Mi Mix Alpha ). But that is likely to change in the coming months – the fact is Samsung
added 108-megapixel resolution support to the camera app code in the latest beta version
of the OneUI 2.0 shell, thereby confirming the circulating drys. Checking the camera application code in the
latest beta version, Max Weinbach from the XDA revealed that the camera application now
supports 12,000 by 9000 pixels – that is, 108 megapixels. Given that Samsung is usually serious about
new features in its software, it is very likely that the company is actually working on a
new smartphone with a 108MP sensor. Recall: Samsung ISOCELL Bright HMX was developed
in collaboration with Xiaomi and at the same time is by far the largest for smartphones
in terms of physical dimensions – 1 / 1.33 “(9.6 × 7.2 mm). Pixel size in Samsung ISOCELL Bright HMX is
0.8 microns, in the limit, the user can take huge photos with a resolution of 12032 × 9024
pixels, which due to the computational photo in quality will become even closer to system
cameras. However, it’s worth remembering that this
is a matrix, created using Quad Bayer technology (in Samsung terminology – Tetracell). In other words, light Bayer frames do not
cover every single pixel, but a group of four at once. As a result, the full resolution of such a
sensor is actually about 27 megapixels (6016 × 4512), but the size of a single pixel,
in fact, also reaches 1.6 microns. Despite its gigantic resolution, ISOCELL Bright
HMX, as Samsung promises, remains a very fast sensor. For example, the manufacturer during the announcement
announced support for recording video in resolutions up to 6K (6016 × 3384 pixels) at a frequency
of 30 frames per second – let’s hope that the Galaxy S11 really gets this video mode.

The Art of the ‘Bites The Dust’ Arc

The Art of the ‘Bites The Dust’ Arc


You know, there are a lot of moments in JoJo
where I end up getting really engaged into the show or manga to the point of where things
affect me like the characters. I think that’s probably due to me getting
into the perspective of character’s, but at the same time it’s the writing. I have a personal “top 5” arcs, and I
can easily tell you that the ‘Bites the Dust’ arc is in that top 5. The reason why I’m able to feel this so
much is due to my perspective following the same view as Hayato. We obviously see how everything is beforehand,
and we know what Hayato doesn’t. Even then, I still love to see it in his eyes. The reason for that is there’s more mystery
and suspense from his direct view. I mean of course it should; from our perspective,
we’re just seeing how long Kira can hold up with his façade. In the eyes of Hayato, it’s noticing that
your dad isn’t your dad. Imagining that that in a real-world perspective
would be unimaginable. You can’t just steal someone’s face, job,
family and have it work. And no, we’re not going to reference the
movie “Face Off”. Now, all the suspense of the ‘Bites the
Dust’ arc is due to the buildup we get from “My Dad is not my Dad”, so I’m going
to be starting it off with it. We start this off with Kira with a bloodlust,
and he trails slowly behind the couple that had disrespected him. What we don’t focus on is Hayato trailing
Kira from the train station. Kira has been holding back his intentions
for a while now, and he’s been watching out on Hayato because he knows it’s all
over if Hayato finds out. The thing is, Hayato had already found out
back in the “The Cat Who Loved Kira” arc, and that was one of most terrifying moments
for Hayato. Where the man who he thought was his father,
speaks on having to kill Hayato if he’s found out. While I do love the scene, I don’t understand
why he would talk out-loud. I know I’m not the only one just confused
on the logic of the serial killer who had a pretty long streak without getting caught. After that scene, we have a conflict being
brought ahead of Kira Vs. The Morioh Warriors. Kira Vs. Hayato. We get to see one of Kira’s best moments
here, and you know it’s one of Kira’s best moments when it takes up both pages of
the manga. The one thing that Kira didn’t consider
with this kill, was that he was being watched, since he only thought it was a couple, which
it was. But, Hayato was there the whole time from
the train station, to the couple’s home. All the events that had happened between Kira
and Hayato had now built up to the final confrontation between them in bathroom. Kira had planned talk Hayato down and probably
kill him, but Hayato was 10 steps ahead. Hayato had hid tapes all over and outside
of his home, which means if Hayato was announced to be missing, that would-be news for the
quiet town of Morioh. Along with that, Kira examining the home for
the tapes while his Hayato is missing would be very suspicious. This is Kira’s checkmate, a child. The only sensible thing he can do is leave
Morioh, before authorities are called. I mean, it’s not like Kira is going to kill
Hayato while knowing of the outcomes that were explained to him through little boy without
clothing. Except he does, and now Kira has put himself
into the one if not, one of the most difficult situations ever. He’s able to keep his composure when Shinobu
confronts him because she’s looking for Hayato. Shinobu doesn’t really try that hard, and
she ends up just forgetting everything. She tries to help Kira with the fingernails
he’s been biting at, but then leaves to make tea. Kira is now on a timer. Sooner or later, she’s going to search for
Hayato in his room and around the house. If she doesn’t find him, she’s going to
end up calling the police and Kira’s clock is up when it happens. Yoshihiro comes into the picture, and it pains
him to see his son like this. He knows that Kira had made a huge mistake,
and now he’s stressing about it. Which reconnect Yoshihiro with the memories
of younger Kira. Now this is where we’re faced with a position
we haven’t seen before, but the characters have. Kira had a time like this, and his father
went out of his way to help him. That help had led to Kira getting his stand,
Killer Queen. But, there isn’t a way to get out of this
situation. Kira would have to leave Morioh, but he won’t. He will never be at peace if he does, so he
needs something to help him so that he does stay in Morioh without pursuit. We had never seen something like this before
in previous parts or in DIU, but Kira had now been pierced by the arrow a second time. The answer he’s been looking for had ended
up being the answer that he was given before when he felt like this. But, what is this answer? In the manga, we’re just show the arrow
and home so there isn’t much we can make from it. But in the anime, Kira is sucked into nothingness. So, what’s going on? Now we’re here with a new perspective, and
seeing this with no history. Seeing the home, and Shinobu is coming into
Hayato’s room, and I originally thought that this is where Kira’s clock starts… But, Hayato is there. I see Hayato thinking about what had happened,
but then I see Kira. This new form of Kira, which I saw as him
trying to be himself and not Kosaku. But, all my attention was on the text. Killer Queen’s new ability. Even if you were watching the anime too, you
had to have been at least the same level of confusion as Yoshihiro if you weren’t spoiled. What could make this guy so confident, that
he would revert into himself. Along with that, Hayato knows that Kira isn’t
his dad and that he’s a murderer. Kira and Hayato have a terrifying exchange,
and Kira reveals that he’s not only not afraid, but he’s also able to freely tell
Hayato his name without worry. While gathering my thoughts together with
Hayato, a familiar face comes into the picture. Rohan Kishibe, stand user of Heaven’s Door,
here to confront Hayato and ask him about his dad. This was one of the moments where you know
something is about to go down because everything is pointing at it, and the suspense is slowly
building; especially since Hayato now knows Kira’s name and Heaven’s Door can easily
find that. So Hayato is asked about his father, but tries
to get away, that’s where Rohan must use Heaven’s Door just to get the information
he had came for. But, there’s a warning. Rohan has never seen something like this since
Heaven’s Door is only meant to just turn the being he’s using it on, into a record
of their life events. He’s genuinely puzzled because he’s never
seen something like this, but he’s interested so he continues. As he continues, all the events that are written
down are happening in real-time. This is one of the oddest things to happen,
and we’re just with Rohan as it goes. Hayato is holding experiences of the future,
but what could cause this. Even with these odd things happening, Rohan
continues to read on; and then it happens. The information about Kira that Rohan has
been searching for is all there. Rohan has figured it out, he’s got what
he needed, and now all he needs to do is tell the others about. But he reads on for any extra information,
and that’s where it ends. “Rohan Kishibe is killed”, we had established
that events on Hayato had so far been future experiences, and Rohan’s death is written
there. I was thinking to myself, what the hell is
going on? The writing furthered on, he was killed by
the matured Kira, but there’s something under the paper. IT’S KILLER QUEEN, KILLER QUEEN’S THIRD
BOMB: BITES THE DUST. My heart had almost stopped at this point,
but this is where I had also triggered memories of DIO Vs. Jotaro. Jotaro had invaded DIO’s world by also being
able to stop time. Killer Queen had done it just invaded Rohan’s
world but to the extent of being in Heaven’s Door. You don’t see something like this before,
and at this point I was speechless when seeing it. How did he get into to Heaven’s Door, why
is Killer Queen on Hayato, and what the hell is “Bites The Dust”?!? Rohan combats Killer Queen, he can open any
stand and turn it to a book, but no! That’s not happening, Killer Queen was basically
intangible when this happens. And it’s not that Rohan couldn’t combat
him, he already had Killer Queen in his eye. He’s not looking at Killer Queen from a
perspective, he’s inside of Rohan! The third bomb has now been activated! So, we get information from Killer Queen itself. This is a bomb planted on Hayato and it activates
when anyone is looking for information on Kira. What I like here is that we get Killer Queen’s
voice in the anime, which is the same as Kira, but majority of stands are voiced by the same
people who voice the user. That’s why Jotaro’s Ora and Star Platinum’s
Ora is the same thing. How Bites the Dust was explained to work,
I was so puzzled on how we had got up to this moment. It looked a bomb that just blows up people
that look for Kira, so I had thought that this is what’s going to end of the people
that look for Kira, one by one. But Rohan had already planned to meet Jotaro
and Koichi, and he can see them across the road. He finally found Kira, Rohan may die now,
but he’s going to be able to pass on the information before he dies. Just like how Kakyoin had been able to pass
the information about the world to DIO. So in my mind I’m thinking, “This is about
to be Stardust Crusaders part 2 with the ending arc”, but there was a one last detail before
coming to a conclusion. “This is where Killer Queen’s third ability,
truly begins!”. With a final yell screaming for a friend’s
name, Rohan bites the dust, with Hayato waking up to see it happen. OH NO! OH GOD! THE HUMANITY, and hey how did Hayato get back
home. The way Shinobu comes in, the china, the morning
program, everything is the same. It’s not just Hayato in a dream or something,
it’s the same morning. He’s experiencing the same morning. Kira shrouds Hayato in a darkness, and explains
what had happened to him. Bites the Dust, the invincible ability that
protects his identity. This was where we’re introduced to the true
ability. Killer Queen blows up those that search for
Kira, but time is rewound back to an hour prior. Everyone that investigates Kira using Hayato
is blown up. If Hayato wants to tell someone about Kira,
it never happened. The most gripping part about this, is that
the events that happen in Bites the Dust, become fate. If Hayato was turn into a book, then he’s
turned into a book. Which means if someone dies, then they will
die again. Fate is now under Kira’s control. The fate in JoJo was always a factor outside
of a person’s control, but now is happening. Now obviously more events happen after this,
but I want to focus on how we got here and what it meant. Kira had always found himself in situations
that he shouldn’t be able to get out of, but he always found his way. Fate had brought the stand users together,
and had been the reason of Kira getting into those troubling situations. But now, Kira has control of that. Now, if people want to pursue the bad guy,
they will die, forever. It got a point of where Hayato was willing
to sacrifice himself to change fate, but even then, he couldn’t do that. Him trying to sacrifice himself had ended
up being the perfect moment to blow up everyone in looking at him. Hayato was stuck in a difficult situation,
and it pained him deeply. He couldn’t stop it, and everyone that had
came to help and save him had perished because they got in contact with him. Fate will continue to kill everyone that plans
to help Hayato, and there isn’t anything that they can do for him. Fate is going against Hayato, and he needs
to do something to fix this, which he does. We know about Stands and how this is just
an ability, but to Hayato, it’s fate itself. That’s where the art lays. Everything trying to help Hayato ends up getting
destroyed. That’s why he must do this himself, and
that’s the art of Bites the Dust. You don’t need anything besides yourself
to change fate, you have control of what you can do. Even if you don’t think you have control
of your life or fate, you do, and you can do it. Thank you for watching. If you liked this video and you’re looking
for other videos of mine like this, I recommend my character analysis playlist. If you want specific videos, I suggest the
Kakyoin or Polnareff character analysis. And as a side note, I plan to talk about My
Hero and Hunter more, but I’m also open for recommendations. I recently finished MOB Psycho, so I plan
to make a video on that soon. Like if you liked, subscribe to be updated. So again, thank you for watching. Hopefully I’ll see you in the next one,
until then, peace out and god speed.

Directing – The Fine Arts of Blocking and Composition

Directing – The Fine Arts of Blocking and Composition


Fallen Angels – c.1995 – dir. Wong Kar-Wai Guardians of the Galaxy – c. 2014 – dir. James Gunn Super 8 – c. 2011 – dir. JJ Abrams Mission Impossible: Ghost Protocol – c. 2011
– dir Brad Bird Close Encounters of the Third Kind – c. 1977
– dir. Steven Spielberg In The Mood For Love – c. 2000 – dir. Wong
Kar-Wai Unforgiven – c. 1992 – dir. Clint Eastwood High and Low – c. 1960 – dir. Akira Kurosawa The Iron Giant – c. 1999 – dir. Brad Bird Taken 2 – c. 2012 – dir A Dog that just
licked a Lime (Olivier Megaton) Jaws – c. 1975 – dir. Steven Spielberg Super 8 – c. 2011 – dir. JJ Abrams Guardians of the Galaxy – c. 2014 – dir. James Gunn Unforgiven – c. 1992 – dir. Clint Eastwood The Bourne Ultimatum – c. 2007 – dir. Paul Greengrass Snowpiercer – c. 2013 – dir. Bong Joon-ho Haywire – c. 2011 – dir. Steven Soderbergh 13 Assassins – c. 2010 – dir. Takashi Miike Taken 2 – c. 2012 – dir. Sonic The Hedgehog on Meth (Olivier Megaton) Citizen Kane – c. 3000 AD – dir. Muhammed Close Encounters of the Third Kind – c. 1975 – dir. Steven Spielberg Jaws – c. 1975 – dir. Steven Spielberg Gone Girl – c. 2014 – dir. David Fincher Cure – c. 1997 – dir. Kiyoshi Kurosawa High and Low – c. 1960 – dir. Akira Kurosawa In The Mood For Love – c. 2000 – dir. Wong Kar-Wai Snowpiercer – c. 2014 – dir. Bong Joon-ho Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy – c. 2011 – dir. Tomas Alfredson In The Mood For Love – c. 2000 – dir. Wong Kar-Wai Snowpiercer – c. 2014 – dir. Bong Joon-ho Cure – c. 1997 – dir. Kiyoshi Kurosawa Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy – c. 2011 – dir. Tomas Alfredson In The Mood For Love – c. 2000 – dir. Wong Kar-Wai Jaws – c. 1975 – dir. Steven Spielberg 13 Assassins – c. 2010 – dir. Takashi Miike Gone Girl – c. 2014 – dir. David Fincher Animal Kingdom – c. 2010 – dir. David Michod Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy – c. 2011 – dir. Tomas Alfredson

What Goes into the Background Art (in Anime)?

What Goes into the Background Art (in Anime)?


Lupin III: The Woman Called Fujiko Mine (2012)
Art Director: Tamura Seiki The Wind Rise (2013)
Art Director: Takeshige Youji New Game (2016)
Art Director: Suzuki Shunsuke Kazuo Oga Interview/Drawing Session The Tale of the Princess Kaguya (2013)
Art Director: Kazuo Oga Tamako Love Story (2014)
Art Director: Tamine Ikuko The Tale of the Princess Kaguya (2013)
Art Director: Kazuo Oga The Garden of Words (2013)
Art Director: Takiguchi Hiroshi Ocean Waves (1993)
Art Director: Tanaka Naoya K-On!! (2010)
Art Director: Tamura Seiki Adolescence of Utena (2001)
Art Director: Shichiro Kobayashi Simoun (2006)
Art Director: Shichiro Kobayashi Adolescence of Utena (2001)
Art Director: Shichiro Kobayashi KonoSuba (2015)
Art Director: Miyake Masakazu Humanity Has Declined (2012)
Art Director: Miyake Masakazu Only Yesterday (1991)
Art Director: Kazuo Oga Bakemonogatari (2009)
Art Director: Iijima Hisaharu (Ryubido) Little Witch Academia (2013)
Art Director: Kaneko Yuuji (Studio Pablo) Osomatsu-San (2016)
Art Director: Tamura Seiki (Studio Pablo) Simoun (2006)
Art Director: Shichiro Kobayashi Space Patrol Luluco (2016)
Art Director: Kobayashi Hiroyasu Ping Pong the Animation (2014)
Art Director: Kevin Aymeric New Game (2016)
Art Director: Suzuki Shunsuke ReLIFE (2016)
Art Director: Akiyama Kentarou Girls und Panzer der Film (2015)
Director: Mizushima Tsutomu Flying Witch (2016)
Art Director: Okumura Yasuhiro K-On!! (2010)
Art Director: Tamura Seiki To Love-Ru Darkness 2nd (2015)
Art Director: Yamaguchi Masanori Koufuku Graffiti (2015)
Art Director: Naitou Takeshi

Elon Musk’s Basic Economics

Elon Musk’s Basic Economics


This video was made possible by Hover. Buy your domain before its gone for 10% off
by going to hover.com/Wendover. Imagine a $2,000 car… or a $100 laptop…
or a $70 iPhone… or imagine any product ten times cheaper than it was. Imagine the fundamental market change that
would bring. Imagine the amount of demand there would be
for that $2,000 car or $100 laptop or $70 iPhone. That’s what Elon Musk imagined 15 years
ago when he sat on a pile of $165 million dollars. Elon Musk’s businesses are all centered
around some the most basic principles of economics out there. When he starts a business, he’s not necessarily
trying to do something new, he’s trying to do something right. Musk made most of his early fortune through
his involvement with PayPal. In 1999 he founded a company called X.com
which was quickly bought by Confinity—the creators of PayPal—so when PayPal was bought
by eBay in 2002, Musk’s 11.7% ownership of the company translated to $165 million
dollars. Elon Musk has always been deeply passionate
about space exploration and, as anyone knows, public interest in space has been falling
since the Apollo era. Therefore, Musk’s plan with his newfound
fortune was to launch a rocket to mars carrying a small greenhouse that would grow plants
on the surface of the red planet. Basically, he wanted to take all his money
and put it into a big publicity stunt for space exploration. But he had a problem—it was too expensive. The cost of launches was absolutely immense
and, even when Musk tried to buy decommissioned Russian ICBM’s, he couldn’t find a way
to pull off the project, but he had discovered something. The space launch industry was ripe for disruption. Here’s Joseph, the economics expert from
Real Life Lore to explain why. “The rocket development and space-launch
companies before Space X were essentially aggregators. They bought engines and guidance systems and
all the other various components from other companies to cobble together one completed
rocket. But all the different component suppliers
also had their own component suppliers to make their product. The suppliers of the suppliers not only had
to cover their development and manufacturing costs, they had to sell their components at
a markup in order to make a profit, and then the next component manufacturer had to do
the same which means that by the time the component gets to the company assembling the
rocket, it’s expensive. Not only that, but the assembly company also
has to pay for employees that work to actually figure out how to make all of the different
pieces work together. SpaceX however, works differently. It makes 85% of the components it uses itself,
which allows it to make cheaper parts. For example, if SpaceX had bought their radios
externally they would be paying $50,000-100,000 dollars each, but since they develop them
internally they only cost $5,000 each to build, a dramatic improvement in reducing cost.” Joseph from Real Life Lore has a brand new
book which includes two fantastic chapters explaining simple economic concepts like this
that I’ll link in the description, but let’s talk Tesla. Tesla’s economic strategy is fairly similar
to SpaceX’s. Tesla themselves makes about 80% of the 5,300
parts in a Tesla car, but for the most part they don’t make these, the batteries, at
least yet. Batteries are very difficult to make at a
competitive price so very few companies do. The largest three manufacturers—Panasonic,
BYD, and LG Chem—make a combined 63% of the world’s batteries. Tesla, therefore, has historically just bought
batteries from Panasonic at a cost of about $200 per kWh. But that means that Tesla’s smallest battery
pack, the 50 kWh version, costs $10,000 dollars just in components. When you’re trying to sell a $35,000 dollar
car and make a profit, that’s a significant cost that can be reduced. Therefore, Tesla is attempting to reduce the
cost of their batteries by 30% by building their own factory in a joint-venture with
Panasonic. Their long-term goal, however, is to drop
the battery price below $100 dollars per kWh which would either double the range or halve
the price of that 50 kWh battery pack. But the vertical integration of Tesla and
SpaceX isn’t all useful. The companies basically have to learn and
perfect each step in the manufacturing process and, if one step isn’t working, no cars
get made. For example, the Tesla Model 3, the low-cost
Tesla, is built using steel instead of aluminum like the Model S and X. With this change, the manufacturer is having
troubles properly welding the vehicle bodies together and so the entire production line
is slowed down massively. But there’s something else unique about SpaceX
and Tesla’s production lines—they’re in the US. Now this probably seems counterintuitive—why
would you put the production lines of two companies working to make the least expensive
products on the market in one of the most expensive labor markets in the world? Almost every US company has relocated their
production lines to cheaper labor markets in Asia and Africa but Musk has always had
his in the US. Believe it or not, this isn’t a PR move. It actually makes sense for the two companies. Tesla and SpaceX’s production processes
are constantly being tweaked and optimized as the companies learn to make their products. While China might be able to build Tesla cars
at the same price by using cheaper human labor, Tesla’s US factory is just miles away from
its headquarters in Palo Alto meaning that the executive, development, and production
staff are all heavily integrated and can make changes fast. SpaceX even takes this a step further. It’s offices and manufacturing lines are
all under one roof. The Tesla factory in particular is also heavily
automatized and the US excels in production line automation with its abundance of highly
skilled workers, but just how much is Musk dropping the price on his products? The United Launch Alliance, which historically
has won most of the highly lucrative US government launch contracts, is believed to charge more
than $400 million dollars all-in for a military satellite launch while SpaceX charges about
$80 million dollars. So, SpaceX is already at a fifth of the price,
but as mentioned, Elon Musk wants that to fall to a tenth. Here’s the key for that—the fuel used
in the Falcon 9 rocket only costs about $200,000 dollars per launch—it’s practically a
non-factor in the launch price. The real cost is of the rockets themselves,
so that’s why SpaceX is making them reusable. The first stage of the rocket is now being
designed to land back on earth and be put back into service with dozens more launches. Once this system becomes reliable, it’s
believed that the cost savings will drop the launch price to $40 million dollars—a full
10 times cheaper than United Launch Alliance’s military launch price. SpaceX’s long-term goal is to get the launch
price down to about $10 million dollars per launch. While the company has already made a significant
impact on the space industry, a launch price as low as this would fundamentally change
what’s possible in space. Real space tourism would become feasible,
commercial satellites would become downright commonplace, and Space would become closer
than it’s ever been. But SpaceX does have a bit of a problem—people
aren’t really buying more rocket launches even though prices are down. It’s what’s known as a price inelastic
market. That’s the opposite of Tesla and the electric
vehicle market where lower prices lead to huge increases in sales. The problem with the space launch market is
that it is not a consumer market—normal people don’t buy rocket launches. Governments buy rocket launches and they don’t
care about price nearly as much as people since it’s not the decision makers’ money. The US Air Force, for example, decides they
need to launch a certain number of satellites each year for the national security reasons
and they’ll pay whatever it takes. But Elon Musk’s life goal is to get humanity
to Mars—that’s why SpaceX exists—and he needs money to do it. Lots of money. So, SpaceX is getting into the internet business. The company is actively developing a satellite
constellation that would provide high-speed internet to anywhere on earth. Thousands of small satellites would be put
into low earth orbit and then anyone worldwide could hook into the network using an inexpensive
ground receiver. If SpaceX got just 50 million users out of
the 7 billion in its proposed service area, this business could bring in $30 billion dollars
a year. Since SpaceX would be building and launching
the satellites themselves, costs would be dramatically lower than the competition’s. The whole commercial aspect of SpaceX essentially
exists to fund Musk’s future space exploration projects. For that reason, SpaceX is not a public company
like Tesla. Elon Musk does not want to make money with
SpaceX, he wants to get to Mars. He does not want to be beholden to shareholders
and profitability. Musk has therefore publicly said that SpaceX
will not go public until the company achieves regular flights to and from mars and thanks
to the entrepreneur’s understanding of basic economics, that might not be too far off. If you’re looking to start a company, you’ll
need not only an understanding of basic economics but also a domain. Hover makes finding and purchasing your domain
super simple. They have over 400 domain extensions that
let you create unique domains like mine—wendover.productions. It literally takes minutes to find and buy
your domain, but if you do ever have an issue they have amazing, best-in-class customer
support that will help you with anything and everything. If you have a name you want to use for your
business, your YouTube channel, or anything else you should buy the domain now before
it’s gone. You can also set up custom, professional email
addresses using those domains for very reasonable prices and what’s best is that you can do
all of this for 10% off by heading over to hover.com/Wendover and you’ll be supporting
the channel while you’re at it. Hover is what I use for my domains since it
just works and you should too by heading over to Hover.com/wendover.

The Real Science of Forensics

The Real Science of Forensics


[Intro/Outro Music] Let’s talk about crime shows. In a nonstop media stream filled with reality shows, cooking competitions and
whatever is happening in Westeros, police procedurals are probably as close as most of us are going to get to seeing science
portrayed in prime time. And the techniques that crime fighters use to catch
“bad guys” vary from show to show, but a lot of the time it involves forensics, which is basically the use of science in the field of law, in this case, criminal law. Different kinds of forensic investigators have different roles, like analyzing crime scenes or running tests in the lab, and they can specialize beyond that, focusing on analyzing DNA or bullets for example. Generally, they all have an undergraduate degree in a scientific field, like chemistry or biology, or a more targeted degree in forensic science itself. Some have a graduate degree, too, and medical examiners, or ME’s, usually have a degree in medicine. But they all have one thing in common: using science to find, gather and analyze
evidence that can be used in court. However, Hollywood seems to think that real science doesn’t always make for entertaining TV, so writers tend to take some liberties
with how forensics really work. Most of the time they aren’t completely off the mark, for example, the tests they use on the show
might actually exist. But they wouldn’t be nearly as fast
or accurate in real life. And the technology they use is just … ridiculous. We’re here to clear that up, and talk about
what forensics can actually do, which turns out to be pretty interesting all by itself. And to do that we’re going to solve
a hypothetical crime. So here’s our case: someone finds a dead guy
in an alley in Chicago. The cops secure the scene and the forensic investigators show up around 11 PM to gather clues. When they go through the victim’s pockets, they find a receipt for a bottle of soda from a nearby convenience store time-stamped at 5PM, 6 hours earlier. And, according to the ID in his wallet, his name is Bob. The medical examiners wanna know
how long Bob has been dead, which could be key to finding and catching his killer. So there are a few things they can check,
and they all happen to end in the word “mortis,” which makes sense,
’cause that just means “death” in Latin. First there’s livor mortis, or how the blood pools. Now that Bob’s heart isn’t distributing his blood anymore, it just goes where gravity takes it, and that makes the skin look
purple-ish from the outside. But if a body’s been dead for more than 12 hours,
the blood will have coagulated or dried. It stays in place, and if you shift the body,
the blood won’t pool in a new spot. Now, Bob’s blood seems to still be very liquid,
so he’s been dead less than 12 hours. Though of course, the examiners already knew that, since he was alive and well in a convenience store
only 6 hours ago. Next they check if rigor mortis, the stiffening of the muscles after death, has set in. Rigor mortis is proof that your muscles work in kind of the opposite way than you might expect. Since running and lifting weights, and doing things that require your muscles is hard, you might think making your muscles contract
requires a lot of energy, but, that’s not true. Your body actually uses energy
to make your muscles relax, not contract. So after somebody dies, and their muscles
stop getting chemical energy, their muscles can’t un-contract, so their bodies stiffen. The effect starts about 2 hours after death
and lasts until about 36 hours in, when the muscles decompose enough
that they can’t hold their position anymore. In Bob’s case, rigor mortis does seem to have set in,
he’s frozen in place, so the body is probably more than 2 hours old.
They would like to get a more accurate number though. If the body is close to 6 hours old, that means he was probably murdered right after he left the store. So, they take the body’s temperature … rectally … a detail they don’t normally show in crime dramas,
and it’s 29 degrees Celsius. Now, normally, a body loses heat at a rate of
about 1.5 degrees Celsius per hour, a process known as algor mortis. When Bob was alive, his body temperature
would have been 37 degrees, so it has lost 8 degrees so far, you’d think Bob’s been dead very close to 6 hours, and in a TV show, the ME would probably say that. But there’s a problem, this is a cold winter evening in Chicago, and it’s about 5 Degrees outside. The body is going to lose heat a lot faster to the colder air, but it is hard to tell exactly how fast. Given all the information they’ve gathered, our MEs
put the time of death between 5 PM and 7 PM, there’s no way to tell if Bob was murdered right after
he left the store, or two hours later. So, the detectives head to the store and ask to review the security camera footage, hoping they’ll be able to figure out
if anyone was with Bob when he bought his drink. Turns out that as Bob left the store, the camera picked up someone quickly emerging behind a nearby tree, to follow him down the street. But it was so far away that the stalker’s face
is all pixilated and blurry, you can hardly even tell it’s a face, let alone whose it is. Now if this were a TV show, usually the detectives would zoom in on the face, and enhance the image … somehow … and then run the magically clear photo through a facial recognition database. And then maybe the next part of the story is they get
a match, which leads them to another clue. But, in real life, there’s no way they could
enhance the picture like that. When a camera captures a digital image, it’s recorded as data that forms a map of the colors in each point, or pixel, in the picture, and those pixels cover a bigger or smaller space depending on the resolution, or how many pixels are in that image. The color of each pixel is recorded as the average
of all the colors within that space. But once the color is stored as the average, that’s it,
you can’t enhance the resolution of a photo. Because there’s no way to tell which amount of which colors went into that average in each pixel. Let’s say that your camera has 8 megapixels, which is pretty typical for a smartphone. That means it takes a picture with 8 million pixels in it. That sounds like a lot, but let’s just say you wanna
take a picture of something really small, or really far away, like a person
at the other end of a field. You can zoom in a lot, but you still probably
won’t be able to make out much detail. Whatever’s written on the T-shirt, for example,
might just look like a few blocky, dark green squares, and there’s no way you can enhance those squares to see that the dark green pixels are just averaging together the bright green letters on a black background that spell out “SciShow”, which, of course, are available at DFTBA.com/SciShow. 😉 If you wanted to be able to make out what’s on the shirt, you need a lot more pixels that would each depict
a smaller area of that mysterious figure. But let’s say our real life detectives look through
some more of the footage and realize the person who was following our victim was actually back in the store about three hours later. They can tell, because he was wearing
the same clothes. The camera captures him as he puts something down on a shelf, then leaves. They get a close up picture of his face, and run it through the database. Facial recognition actually has a long history, because it’s one of those things humans tend to be very good at. But it’s hard to get computers to do well. Humans are excellent at finding patterns, but the computers have to be taught what to look for. Human features, as it turns out, are arranged
in very specific ways, but the specifics are unique to each person. For example, everyone has a certain curvature to their eye sockets, or distance between the nose and mouth. Those dimensions are different for everyone, but computers can be programmed to measure them, then use the data to identify faces. Together, these metrics make up a faceprint, and there are actually databases of faceprints
compiled from things like mugshots. A computer can take an image of a face,
like the one of a man following Bob, and compare his faceprint to ones
already in the database. On TV shows, that database will usually shown as a sophisticated system, with all the data in one place. All the detectives have to do
is type in some commands on a keyboard and the computer starts cross-referencing
with every picture ever taken in the country. But that kind of law enforcement database
doesn’t really exist, at least, not yet. The FBI is working on what they say will be
the world’s biggest database of biometrics, with tens of millions of records. But for now, if cities have searchable
faceprint databases at all, they’re usually local. Chicago, for example, has one called NeoFace
that looks for matches in the police photo database. In our case, the investigators catch a lucky break. When they run the suspect’s faceprint against the Chicago police department’s
database of mugshots, they find a match. His name is Charlie, and he owns a hardware store a few blocks away. When the investigators inspect the shelf they saw him putting something on, they find a wrench with a dark red stain. Thinking that it might be their murder weapon,
they take a swab of whatever’s on the wrench then do something called a Kastle-Meyer test
to see if it’s blood. On TV, you might just see them spraying
some liquid onto the swab to see if it changes color, but in real life, they’ll need to use
two different substances. First they add the chemical phenolphthalein to the swab, then a couple of drops of hydrogen peroxide. If there’s blood in the sample, the two compounds
will react with each other, turning the phenolphthalein a vivid shade of pink. Blood contains hemoglobin, which acts as a catalyst, basically, the substance that makes a reaction happen. With hemoglobin’s help, the peroxide reacts with
the hydrogen in phenolphthalein and becomes water. The new hydrogen-less form of phenolphthalein
then turns pink. If there were no blood on the wrench, the reaction wouldn’t happen because it wouldn’t have a catalyst to help it along. But in this case, the swab from the wrench does
turn pink, meaning that the stain is probably blood, so the investigators take the wrench for further testing. Back at the lab they run a DNA analysis on the blood from the wrench and compare it with Bob’s. If it’s a match, they’ve probably found the murder weapon, and their murderer. Now this test actually works
pretty much like it does on TV. DNA is the molecule that makes you who you are, long strings of four different compounds or base pairs, in a particular order, and everybody has their own unique set,
except for identical twins. So, if you have a DNA sample, that’s a really good way
to identify someone. But forensic teams don’t just sequence everyone’s DNA, instead, they usually use a technique known as
STR analysis to match DNA samples. It’s based on the idea that everyone’s DNA has
certain sections with repeating patterns of base pairs, but the number of times the pattern repeats itself
varies from person to person. The STR looks at 13 of those repeating sections, and the odds of two people having the exact same base pairs in all 13 are about one in a billion, meaning there are probably only about six other people
in the entire world who have the same STR profile as you and forensic experts figure that’s accurate enough. Plus, it takes less than an hour and a half to run. So, in our case, investigators find that the blood
on the wrench did come from Bob, which certainly makes Charlie a suspect.
But there still are open questions. Was Bob’s encounter with the wrench what killed him? What someone else involved besides Charlie? Unfortunately I can’t answer those questions for you because we’re out of time
and Game of Thrones is about to come on. But thanks for watching, and thanks especially to our
patrons on Patreon who make this show possible. If you want to help us make episodes like this,
just go to Patreon.com/scishow. And don’t forget to go to Youtube.com/scishow
and subscribe. [Intro/Outro Music]

Lady Bird: The Unofficial Reading List

Lady Bird: The Unofficial Reading List


The Grapes of Wrath (1939) by John Steinbeck audiobook narrated by Dylan Baker The Grapes of Wrath (1939) The Pledge of Allegiance The Theology of Augustine: An Introductory Guide to His Most Important Works (2013) The Philosophy of Thomas Aquinas (1988) Provocations: Spiritual Writings of Kierkegaard (2014) “New York Groove” written by Russ Ballard, performed by Kiss “Hand in My Pocket” by Alanis Morissette “Happy” by Keith Richards “Everybody Says Don’t” from the musical
“Anyone Can Whistle” (1964) The Lizard King: The Essential Jim Morrison (1995) Applying Rules of Exponents – Basic Examples N.C. Wyeth: The Collected Paintings, Illustrations, and Murals (1972) The Covenant (1980) Alaska (1988) Texas (1985) Poland (1983) Caribbean (1989) The Drifters (1971) Centennial (1974) Iberia (1968) Space (1982) America: Reagan Country Poster The Cake Bible (1988) Merrily We Roll Along (1981 musical) song: “Merrily We Roll Along” song: “Old Friends” song: “Good Thing Going” song: “Honey” Crash (1996) by Dave Matthews Band “A Woman in Love” sheet music from the movie musical Guys and Dolls (1955) Deadly China Doll (1973) Not a Pretty Girl (1995) by Ani DiFranco Rushmore (1998) film Who, What Am I? Tolstoy’s Struggle to Narrate the Self (2014) (See description for full Tolstoy quote) Paradise Lost (1667) “Better to reign in hell, than serve in heaven.” Anna Karenina (1878) “Boredom – the desire for desires” Oil! (1927) A People’s History of the United States (1980) Holy Bible, Genesis 15:4 National Geographic Magazine – Inside the Great White (April 2000) The Best of LIFE (1973) Autobiography of Mark Twain: Reader’s Edition Volume I (2010) Justified (2002) by Justin Timberlake Who Killed Precious (1991) The Subtle Knife: His Dark Materials Book II (1997) Quality (2002) by Talib Kweli The Cold Vein (2001) by Cannibal Ox Fix-it and Forget-it Big Cookbook (2008) Pretty in Pink (1986) film Mondrian: Basic Art Series (2015) Tower Bridge, Sacramento, CA The Tempest (1611) Playgirl Magazine – June 2003 Hour of the Hunter (1991) Sacred Country (1992) Liechtenstein: History and Institutions of the Principality (1970) The Conqueror (1931) Kagemusha (1980) film

What Level Is Your Art? [Scribble Kibble #39]

What Level Is Your Art? [Scribble Kibble #39]


This video is here so you can take a piece
of your art and figure out what level it is and what you can do as an artist to get to
the next art level. For this episode I asked you to send in recent
art you made so I could rank it, talk about it, and give everyone else examples of art
on each level. I got so much art— Level 0
Art that doesn’t exist at all. You were scared your drawing wouldn’t be
perfect so you never made it. It’s nothing. It’s level zero. Level 1
Level one is an interesting place to be, because you will often see full illustrations here
that have characters and a background (basiabear02) – something that gets more rare on level two
and three but shows up again as the artist gets to a high level. If you’re on level one, you usually spend
a lot of time on your art, even if it’s a simple character. That’s normal. As you get more drawing experience and get
closer to leveling up, you will get faster too. The two areas that need most improvement at
level one are basic line and coloring quality, and shape. At level one, the lines on your drawing aren’t
as confident as a level two artist. They might look a bit shaky or scratchy. You can see this on THEGAMERGOD and Silver
Berry’s art. Or, if the lines are more purposeful and well
placed, level one art is held back by anatomy and shape. Joshua’s pony here is a great example of
that. You can see the technique to shade and draw
is easily level two, but the character itself has some significant anatomy problems, most
noticeably on the too thick neck and overly long body. A level one coloring technique has scribbled
in fills for traditional art, like Dennydo1’s piece, or in digital art, white gaps (anonymous
20) or pixellated edges (Tony Tony Chopper & Adrienne). Filling those areas in and cleaning your edges
on digital art is an easy fix. For traditional art, think about how the stroke
looks. If you scribble in the fill, the pencil lines
go everywhere. But if you use your pencil and only move it
in the same direction back and forth, the coloring job looks more uniform. The difference between level one and two is
that the coloring job at level two looks cleaner. Although the biggest factor for digital art
at level one isn’t coloring, usually. It’s line quality. A level two artist can have solid fill coloring
jobs like Dylan and Bri, their lines are just more smooth. If you are drawing digitally, one of the things
that may help is learning a different program to draw your art in. FireAlpaca and Krita are what people watching
Scribble Kibble recommend the most for drawing still images. And they’re completely free! The other big difference between level one
and two is shape, or proportions. At level one, your eyes might not be in the
right spot, or parts of the body might be different sizes than they should be. Level two art is just that little bit better
at drawing something in a way that looks right. The most important thing you can do to level
up from level one is keep drawing. Do not worry about your art being perfect. Keep drawing for fun, draw things you like,
and you will automatically get the experience you need to reach level two. Level 2
If you’re in this area, your art shows some improvement over where you started at Level
1. Lines and colors are cleaner, but if there’s
shading, it’s imprecise. Anatomy and shape problems persist. XiaoChio’s inking job is much cleaner and
precise than a Level 1 art piece, but it’s still slightly fuzzed and smudged compared
to level 3. More importantly, the balance of the character’s
shape is off in terms of the upper body to lower body ratio, particularly how far down
the arms reach. Even if it’s a dwarf character, we get the
feeling she is going to topple over. The head of Tiki’s anime human is fine,
but it would be much larger relative to her body, especially since she is leaning toward
us. Characters that are well proportioned at level
two will still look somewhat boxy, simple, or undefined relative to level three. Astroblaze and Carbon Coffee’s heroines
are more solid proportion-wise, but their sleeves don’t fit the form of the arm that
would be there underneath. Clothes are usually to blame for the boxy
feeling. At level two you’re taking more time to
make sure overall the character looks right, and not thinking about how different types
of fabric would flow over your arms. For digital artists, level two is the experimental
coloring and shading phase. You’ll try different coloring styles like
EPICSHEROOC and XPShowHost did – and you’ll notice it doesn’t fit very well with the
rest of the drawing. You’ll try some shading, but you won’t
really be sure about where to put it or how to do it, so what happens is instead of emphasizing
the subject of your drawing, it ends up looking like dark or light areas wherever. Burning-Sol, Ashylyn S, Flame Alicorn, LPS
Sketch Art are a few of many, many cases of that. You can improve shading by thinking about
where the light source is and how it would cast light and shadow over your character,
not as a 2D flat picture, but the 3D mass of the character. Sure it’s flat on the paper, but really
good drawings know how to add shadows to make it feel deeper than paper. Lighting is not a very easy thing to do. I recommend drawing some still life. You know, the thing where you put an apple
on a table and draw it on paper, paying attention to where it’s light and where it’s dark. Speaking of shadow, pencil sketches at level
two will be light and not have very much contrast. For comparison, here is a level 5 sketch. Clear dark and light areas. If your sketch looks like Timmsey’s, Silver
Draw’s, or Kitten Cakes, don’t be afraid to push that pencil down hard to make your
sketch darker where the shadows are strongest. ArtistTUBBS and Arctic Spirit have a good
sense for contrast. On Level 2, Infinityrise asks:
I was wondering if my skill level would be good enough to apply to an art college this
year? Yes. Now, if you want to apply to a prestigious
art school, you need to get to level four. At least. But! A local college or community college will
have less harsh portfolio guidelines. If you are determined you want a career in
art, I suggest trying to find summer college classes you can go to, or art activities related
to the art field you want to be in. Anything. Draw a lot and read online about building
a portfolio. CynderGirl77 sent this drawing and asked if
she would be qualified to animate. Anyone watching this is qualified to animate. Start sooner than later, because the skills
it takes to do animations are different from making a single illustration. Level 3
Level up! Level three is the brink, where a piece of
art is almost solid, but there are one or two areas that need improvement. If you’re at this level, figure out your
weak spot and practice. A level three artist rarely has issues with
line. Unlike the previous levels, their strokes
look bold and confident because the artist is more comfortable with the anatomy and shape
of what they are doing. They might make a light sketch of the character’s
shape before doing final lines, which helps with confidence. Even if there are no visible outlines, the
edges of features are smooth and purposeful, like KetchupKat. As for shape, while the subject at level three
is, for the most part, proportionally sensible, the pose it is in might be awkward and unnatural,
like heilix’s cat. Or maybe everything else checks out fine,
but there’s an imbalance in the character’s symmetry. (MaeraFey) In cases where you look at your art and still
instinctively feel something about the shape of it is off, like BlackRose, captain_whisker,
snickerdoodledandy, and Striiking, the best thing to do is study from real life. Even if you’re making cartoons, you need
to know the rules to break them. When drawing fantasy creatures and settings,
reference items related to what you are drawing. A lizard for a dragon, for instance. Also a quick trick is to flip your art. Then you’ll know if it’s off or not. Level three is where you should start paying
attention to composition. Composition is how all of the pieces of your
drawing look together on the page. While gamergirlrebel’s coloring technique
is only level two, the piece of art as a whole is very interesting to look at, whereas if
you flip to Dragons Ponies, there is a lot of unused, bland, empty blue distracting you
from the characters. Nothing some vigorous cropping can’t fix. Vigorous cropping. Ebonyinkstone’s composition is very confusing. Besides the sheer number of jarring colors
and lighting, it’s hard to tell if the focus of the piece is the mask, or the characters
behind it. Moving the faces to natural focal points like
here and here would help. Nitsua Sensei’s composition is more focused,
although it would be interesting to see something like this, which draws the focus towards observing
a planet, or this, loneliness in space. A lot of composition is about the mood you
want to make and what you want your art to focus on. If you’re ready to move on beyond drawing
a single character with no background, go read up on composition. Kiltketeer and Fredson are probably level
four artists who submitted a quick drawing. A level four would be the same drawing, just
with more polish. They could sell sketches and concept art in
this level three style. Dragons Ponies wrote that they’re curious
about how to make their art better because they’re having a hard time improving. My note on that is it’s rare to improve
suddenly. It usually takes a year, and you won’t notice
the improvement until you look back at old art. It may not feel like you’re improving, but
you are. Slothman asks about what to do when you get
so concerned about your art looking good that you quit, or don’t make anything at all. That is the number one struggle almost every
artist has. We stare at what we’ve made and think about
how bad and terrible it is, and how it didn’t go as planned. If you want to be happy as an artist you’ve
got to conquer that overly-critical habit. It hurts your productivity. Stamping out the little whiny devil in your
head is different depending on what kind of person you are. Try setting a deadline. Personally my desire to improve is stronger
than my fear of failure, so I keep drawing out of sheer willpower. And I’ve got people like you who believe
in me, so I want to live up to your expectations! If you’ve got a calmer, more peaceful personality
– try taking a step back from drawing and do a different form of art. You’d be surprised what you’ll learn about
drawing while making a really bad clay sculpture, stuffed animal, oil painting, wood carving,
papercraft, pencil sketch, you get the idea. Nobody knows your art and its flaws better
than you do, so it’s easy to be overly self-critical. Relax. There’s no pressure for you to draw. Any pressure you feel that you need to be
a certain way or at a certain level is all in your head. {Sometimes I’ll really want to draw something
and I’ll imagine it in my head, but as soon as I open my software and get my tablet and
pen ready I start getting thoughts through my head of “What if it doesn’t come out as
I want?” or “What if this is just a waste of time?” and the most I’ll end up doing is
a sketch before giving up on it and not wanting to go through with it. I have an artist friend who is always telling
me to just try and continue with the drawing but I can never pluck up the motivation or
courage to do so and it’s beginning to make me genuinely depressed when I even hold my
tablet pen now. What would you suggest for me to be more confident
with my drawing again?} Level 4
The criteria for level four is, “would people buy art drawn with this level of skill?” At level four, if there are anatomy problems,
they are rather small and unnoticeable. You can’t sell bad anatomy. It’s really quite that simple. The are some exceptions, like DieKnuddlerin,
the back leg on the raccoon wouldn’t lay like that considering the proper tucked nature
of the right one, but the drawing passes anyway because it has level four everything else. Composition of a level four piece of art is
solid; rarely will there be any useless space, or confusion about where you are supposed
to look. Some pieces will be especially well composed,
like this comic page by Amber-Draws that leads your eye through the page in an interesting
way. Another difference between level three and
four is color choice, aka color harmony or color theory. Up until this point you may make pieces of
art that have colors that look gross or unpleasant together. At level four, that goes away. A drawing does not have to be complex to be
level four. Simple drawings at level four are very clean,
constructed, and pleasant to look at, like Fox Called Blue, SauceSource, and ghostyjunky. Letters from level four! Kitty Nuki:
I just painted this yesterday and I’m really happy with the result, but at the same time
not really, and I can’t understand why or what can I do to make it better. Liking and disliking at the same time. I think we all know that feeling. So yes, the question is how do you make something
at level four better? And in some instances, you can’t – not without
starting fresh. I mean, how do you improve this drawing by
Frost Kitten? Changing it defeats the simplicity of what
it is. You could say, oh, add shading, but adding
shading wouldn’t make this a better drawing. Drawing this again as a hyper realistic cat
with a bow would require more skill, but the drawing would also no longer be a cartoon. Kitty Nuki’s art is the same thing. There is nothing technically wrong about this
art piece. If you draw something like this and are unhappy,
ask yourself this: Are you dissatisfied because your art looks
like this and not this? If so, quit drawing cartoons and start practicing
traditional or digital painterly style, because a cartoon is never going to look like the
Mona Lisa. Were you trying to capture an emotion with
your art? What was it? What would you do differently to get closer
to it? At level four, if you want to further improve
your skill you have two options: formal or informal training. There’s no two ways about it, if you get
to four as a self-taught artist, you need to get some edumucation to proceed. Read a book. Do life drawings. Look for classes by artists who have been
working professionally for more than ten years. And that brings us to Level 5 A level five piece of art has distinction
of being absurdly well executed in almost every way, and on top of that, it’s interesting. In many cases, it’s not just a drawing,
it’s a piece of art. Suburbanwinemons is my favorite example. I can’t stop looking at it. KatAuroraMist has a wonderful command of colors
in this piece, and compositionally the directional rush lines direct your eye to the most important
part, the cat’s face. A couple pieces at level five could use slight
anatomy adjustments, like sha-ga’s feathers and left leg, ReedFoxStudios in the glasses
and eyes, MrChiken in the lay of the body in the water – this angle is if she were standing
up in the water – but geeze, look at how beautiful these are. Awkward-Hermit is so close to level six. The element holding it back is the execution
of the woman’s face. A level six piece would have much more defined
light and shadow contrast that would give it lifelike depth. A front positioned nose should be symmetrical. Something that elevates a five above a four
is texture. A piece that would otherwise be a bit plain
if it were only flat colors has something special to it that gives it texture, like
HowlingWithMoon’s dappled painting. Same here for Kartase. Here’s one of the exceptions, HulluMel. This is an incredibly strong character design
thanks to its unique features. The cat is fluffy, but you can feel the weight
to it in the stocky legs and body. cattymadi on level five asks:
Is my art good enough to animate? Dear cattymadi, your art is too good to animate. If you tried to animate this without a team
of anime animators, you would weep in a corner after spending five months to create five
seconds. I’ve got a tutorial for character design
for animations on my agenda for the future. Synchro Centaur’s character is perfect for
animating. Simplify your characters and cut the shading
completely if you want to give animation a go for the first time. Anything I have to say about a level five
piece is just a tiny thing, if anything at all. I considered collapsing level five and six
together, but I decided to pull a few exemplary illustrations out of five. Level 6
Six is the level where I can’t help you. If, for some reason, you want improvement
on a piece of art of this caliber, seek out a similarly skilled artist who works in the
same type of art, an art critic, or a professor. I could say a bit at length about why each
of these is level six, but put simply you can see the intent behind every stroke and
color is that of an artist who knows what they are doing, whether by training or by
instinct. Wow. I’m dead. This episode took two weeks to make. There are about 1,200 pieces of art in here. You can make this episode better. Open the credits document below, pick one
or two names, click their art, and leave a comment of some kind. Not everybody who sent art posted it online,
so not everything is in there, but a lot of it is. You can tell by the link what site it’s
on so you can find something on a site you use. You’ll make the person’s day. Especially for small artists who don’t get
a lot of comments. Go now! Be free! Oh my gosh, I’m never doing this again. *groan* No new episode next week! I get a break! I’m giving myself a break! See you on September 23!

The Art of Conversation

The Art of Conversation


hi my name is s and today I wanna rent blockbuster movies are judged on a lot of things and one particular aspect that always intrigues me in movies is the writing writers have to conceive the conversations that create the dialogue of the movie to tell a story or a narrative and one of the movies that does this brilliantly in my opinion at least is V for Vendetta the 2005 movie tells the story of fascist Britain in a fictional future based on the original comics by Alan Moore the government caused people to believe that security is only achievable through control a vigilante code named B sets out to give people back their freedom for he believes that government should be afraid of people and not vice-versa now although the movie tells the story using various techniques one of the strengths of the movie is the stark contrast in conversational depth between the characters when ve talks to Evie his love interest in the movie the conversations are warm albeit poetic they’re not flirtatious but genuinely interesting building off the themes of freedom and fighting as I watched the movie again I realized how beautiful some of the conversations were and it got me thinking if I were to ask you what is the single greatest conversation you’ve had or heard in your life what would you say would it be a conversation with your partner a conversation with your best friend maybe you’ve never heard the conversation or been part of it but you’ve learned about something like the conversation of Moses with God whatever it is what’s certain is that you’ve had at least several thousand conversations over your life from the moment you could create thoughts in your mind you’ve used words to create sentences to express those thoughts publicly to others and in doing so you’ve engaged in conversations but I beg to argue that if something is so fundamental in how we as a species engage with one another then the skill of striking and interesting conversation is something that should be sought and a conversation can only be it as engaging as the entities involved in the conversation which is where you my dear viewer come in our generation has been given every reason so as not to appreciate true conversation although technology has helped keep us in touch it’s shallowed our relationships as well our relationships with our phones have become just as important as the relationships we have with people if not slightly or in extreme cases some suffer from delma phobia a word first used in 2008 to describe an irrational fear of being detached from one cellphone being addicted to the dopamine surge that follows each notification dick but even if we aren’t addicted to our phones the fact that most of our daily texting consists of short quips one-liners and gif usage has probably diluted our ability to hold a genuinely interesting conversation something my friend Melton right would have argued if he were alive in 2019 in his 1936 book the art of conversation Wright argues just that conversation is a stimulating exchange of thoughts with an end in view the purpose of the conversation drives encouraging the participants to offer their own input on the topic and in doing so approaching that end now this end isn’t necessarily one person destroying another person’s argument but each expressing his or her own thoughts on the matter in a manner that is both respectable and mature this according to Wright isn’t just an innate quality that some elite are privileged with but a skill that can be taught and nurtured as Wright aptly puts it in his book as is the case with any art there are underlying principles about which there is no secret for the application of these principles there is a certain technique which though flexible is just as clear and definite as the rules which apply in music or any other of the fine or applied arts when some of us think of interesting conversation we tend to think of a group of people gathered around a table their faces flushed and wide smiles spread across much like the depictions of Emile this was a German painter who focused most of his work on rural Germany in his painting adequately titled the admirers for example all the light in the image points towards the softly painted female sitting at the head of the table faces around the table are smiling laughing or just simply lost this painting titled the hunters again taps into your senses and makes you hear the conversation rather than just see it aside the man asking for a refill of his jug all eyes in the painting point towards the man sitting at the head of the table flailing as he shares some story about his adventures with the others on the table some look at him in apprehension others in admiration but the conversation is stimulating enough to keep all the listeners hooked on now Emil was well known – beautifully paint his actors sometimes over romantic sizing them in his work and although these might have been very engaging hypothetical conversations Wright would argue that argumentative discussions could and should also be considered good conversations so as long as they do not insult or attack any of the converse errs a good conversation is not defined by how much you smile or laugh but rather by the quality of ideas exchanged in his dialogues for instance Plato describes how Socrates would argue with the people of Athens Socrates was the protagonist of his stories and the way he would converse with people would be through a series of questions that would effectively draw out the answers he saw from those people questions of this form are away right describes as being an effective method for starting conversations Socrates however wasn’t particularly careful not to insult people with his questions for his questions would often show people their ignorance forcing them to regrettably succumb to his views through logic and reasoning this needless to say wasn’t appreciated by the people of Athens and Jacque bluey davines death of Socrates might be what right would describe as a failed conversation seeking opinions therefore is a much more favorable approach ask someone what the sum of 20 and 22 is and they will either know or not but ask them which of the three Anna Jones movies are the best and they will be motivated to express their opinion asking someone’s opinion according to Wright is asking for the product of his own mental operation and of that he is proud you value his reasoning powers and his judgment this taps into their basic instincts encouraging them to partake in the conversation these instincts are attraction self assertion and curiosity get someone to feel any of these there’s a very high chance you’ll have a conversation started find out what intrigues a person and get them to wrap their opinion about it but once the conversation started your skill as a converse err lies in finding a topic interesting enough to keep the dialogue engaging now there are myriad topics that I’ve into but your skill lies in trying to fish for the topic that gets the person to talk as tough as this might be at times a great way to make people enjoy your company is by actually getting them to talk about themselves this shouldn’t come as a surprise at some point humans believed that they were the center of the universe so a little bit of self centrism is not surprising and a rather interesting test psychologists at the University of Harvard asked participants to talk about themselves and talk about others and noted the response in the different regions of their brains the results of the study concluded that people liked talking about themselves their lives their work their children their partners their hobbies get a person to talk about themselves and they’ll like you much more by the time they’re done although I do have my own personal critiques too Wright’s book it does offer a number of avenues worth considering in conversations if you my dear viewer feel like you want to improve the quality of your conversation then maybe you should give his book a read but here are some thoughts before we wrap up when something becomes too familiar we can forget the pleasure we can reap out of it conversations the basis of social interactions of social organisms for dozens of millennia have probably fallen between the cracks of this fast-paced world but perhaps conversations aren’t meant to be rushed perhaps the strength of the conversation lies in the fact that a proper conversation a true one makes you forget that you hurry it makes you lose track of time it’s not a matter of speaking slowly but selectively choosing your words and enjoying how those words are received by the person you’re conversing with it truly is an art and one that should be enjoyed by all as this episode comes to an end I want you to imagine this with me yours somewhere warm the soft motion of the waves on the shore of the beach hums in the background you can hear the seagulls in the distance and in front of you is someone you would love to spend time with you look at each other and a joke rushes through you a sensation that you want to share everything with this person you want to tell them about all that’s been going on in your life and you don’t want to leave you want to keep on talking and listening until it gets dark if you’ve never felt that if you’ve never felt like you don’t want to leave some where you’re sitting with then maybe just maybe you haven’t had a proper conversation in a long time and even though I don’t know you I’m sure you deserve to enjoy thanks for listening to my rant until next time yes [Music]